In fact, the reality is the entire Judeo-Christian mythology and religious dogma much of the right pulls it's politics from are completely and utterly based in the 'just world' hypothesis. I mean, how many times have we seen religious nuts in the US say that a storm or earthquake is 'god's vengeance' for some social issue or event that religious folks disapprove of.
Am I the only one who remembers some of the Right say that Hurricane Katrina was 'god's vengence' for allowing homosexuals to exist in our society?
Again, am I the only one who remembers the 'Hurricane Katrina was god's vengeance' crap that came from some on the Right wing in the US back then.
I would recommend reading Job. Its the oldest book in the Bible, and basically exists to refute the exact sort of thinking you are ascribing to Christianity.
There is sections of the Bible that implicitly talk about how bad things can be a sign of God's judgment, but frequently throughout the Bible it is stated that bad things are not in and of themselves to be seen as a sign of God's judgment.
From Matthew 5:
44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?
Insofar as Christianity states that we live in a 'just world,' that is solely because of the inevitable return of Christ and all that is implied by that, not that the current world is in itself just.