Alternate History 🇺🇸 November 2, 1976: President Nelson Rockefeller wins election to full 4-year term and the aftermath

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Chapter 17: Highlights of the President's remarks to the troops
12:14 PM KST, Sunday, 13 November 1983
Camp Liberty Bell, Republic of Korea

......"We Americans bear a heavy burden. Others must do their part. The people of Korea, the Republic of Korea, are certainly doing their share. Yet, if freedom is to survive, if peace is to be maintained, it will depend on us. Our commitment in Korea exemplifies this heavy responsibility. We've stood shoulder to shoulder with the Korean people for 30 years now. It reflects well on the character of our country that we've been willing to do this in a land so far away from home. And in the end, it is the strength of character that will make the difference between slavery and freedom------but more important, between peace and war......

......"Thirty-three years ago, Americans gallantly fought and died on the gulleys, in the hills of the Korean peninsula here. One of them was Master Sergeant Stanley Adams and another was Captain Lewis Millet. They both led bayonet charges against vastly superior forces. Another hero was Master Sergeant Ernest Kouma, who exposed himself to enemy fire by manning his machine gun from the back of his tank and in doing so, saved his comrades from an onslaught that could have devastated their ranks. A fourth was Lieutenant Colonel John Page, one of the heroes of the Chosin Reservoir, whose integrity and bravery saved so many......

......And all of these were Congressional Medal of Honor recipients. Yet, we know that all who fought here were heroes and deserve our respect.
They did their duty, and by doing so, they protected not only Korea, but a whole generation of Americans......

By the way, one of the children of a Medal Honor recipient I just mentioned, Captain Lewis Millet, sent me a telegram a few days ago in support of the Grenada rescue mission......

Well, today, you carry on an honorable tradition of those who went before you. And I know that you're keeping faith with them and with their families and friends. Americans are now standing tall and firm. No terrorist should question our resolve, and no tyrant should doubt our courage. Your division motto is "Fit to fight, second to none." Well, you've lived up to that motto, and we're proud of you for it. And with your courage and dedication as an example, we're going to make as certain as we can that the United States remains second to none......

......I have never been as proud as I am right now and from what I've seen here. And I know that in spite of what I said about our people back home, I'm not sure that very many of them realize that you aren't just sitting here doing some kind of garrison duty. And I'm going to do everything I can to make sure that the folks back home know what you really are doing......

......So, soldiers of the 2nd Infantry Division, God bless you, and God bless America. Thank you."
-President Reagan's Address to the troops of the 2nd Infantry Division at Camp Liberty Bell, Republic of Korea
Sunday, 13 November 1983.
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Chapter 17: Bracing for Super Chaos in the Republic of Korea
@Red_Tornado @49ersfootball @filipina84 @The Immortal Watch Dog @Buba @bintananth
The Carnage in Seoul
1:56 PM KST, Sunday, 13 November 1983
Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Ronald Wilson Reagan enjoying the festivities at the ROK Army 1st Corps Headquarters before deadly tragedy strikes.....

Following having lunch with the troops of the 2nd Infantry Division in the Mess Hall, President Reagan then went into Marine One for the trip to the Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters. Everyone was filming this special event including those in the press corps covering the President's State Visit to the Republic of Korea.

Among those was Lee Geun-kwan, who was working with MBC News and she was filming these festivities with her camera (more on her later in the timeline). Following the Arrival Honors festivities as well as the 21 Cannon Salute, it was time for the military parade to begin. And also participating in this event were 120 of the ROK soldiers performing all black-belt Karate. Each of them climaxed by breaking a stack of 15 rifles with their heads and shoulders.

The time was 1:56 PM KST when a mysterious, suspicious group of individuals were hiding in one of the largest bushy covered posts. And one of them, Raquel Terra was cocking her sniper and was obviously aiming at the 41st President of the United States, who was sitting in his chair at the designated covered area watching the military parade festivities. "This is the moment. Our time has come to launch one of the biggest strikes which will have major ramifications across the entire world," Raquel gloated. She gleefully smiled as she calmly aimed her sniper at her target. Her heart was beating fast though, the adrenaline was rushing through her bloodstream inside of her body as she realized that she was about to make history as the second female to assassinated a sitting President of the United States.

Also involved was Ximena DeGuedes, who was nervous on what she was getting herself into "I don't know if I should be doing this, this is wrong." One of her co-conspirators, Kristoff Terra used aggressive language in getting Ximena in her place, "If you know what's good for you and your family, you don't want anything to happen to them if you fail this mission."

Raquel looked through the telescope of her sniper, seeing President Reagan laughing joyfully and clapping during the military parade festivities. "Here we go, let's strike" Raquel smirked as she calmly aimed at the target and opened fire: BANG! BANG! BANG! BANG! BANG! BANG!

Then all of a sudden, a large group of co-conspirators rose up to open fire via machine-gun fire shooting everyone in sight: firing a total of 83 shots. Ximena and her colleagues of a mysterious secret organization stormed onto the parameters of the ROK Army 1st Corps Headquarters and opened fire killing 13 soldiers. Following the absolute carnage, Raquel quietly slipped out of the large hidden bushy spots and calmly got out of there without being discovered as did many of her colleagues. "Nobody's going to ever catch us anytime soon," she laughed while being driven in a taxi all the way toward the outskirts of Seoul.

Meanwhile, over at the Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters, it was absolute massive carnage and it wreaked of lots and lots of blood.

COMING UP NEXT IN THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC: Regularly scheduled programming is interrupted!
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Chapter 17: Personal PoV's (Fall 1983: IX)

......"It was an early Sunday morning and I was in the middle of watching the erotic romantic movie "Unmasking Lovers" on the Sunday Morning Movies on NBC 36 KTVV-TV Austin and all of a sudden, I noticed something quite odd with the dark ident of TV 36 blacking out one of the scenes in the middle of the movie with the voice-over saying these words: "We interrupt the Sunday Morning Movie "Unmasking Lovers", but we have a major breaking news alert from NBC News. Please stay tuned for any convenience.

......I was curious to what that statement meant. And I wondered "This is one of my favorite romantic erotic movies. I am intrigued to see what major scoop of news is all about," as I sat on the couch and eating breakfast cereal while reading the Austin American Statesman newspaper.

Then NBC News came on with the ominous words: "This is NBC News. We interrupt your regularly scheduled programming to bring you breaking news."
-Becky Gonzalez
Sunday, 13 November 1983
5:00 AM CST
Pfluggerville, Texas
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Chapter 17: The Gipper Has Fallen!

Sunday, 13 November 1983

*President Reagan seriously wounded by massive shooting attack during military parade festivities at the ROK Army 1st Corps Headquarters in Seoul.
*Condition unclear according to MBC News.
*President Reagan undergoing emergency surgery at the Seoul National University Hospital.
*83+ people injured during violent ambush.
*Casualties reaching over 57+ and growing.
*ROK President Chun Doo-hwan taken to secured location at the Blue House.

Tom Brokaw:
"Ladies and gentlemen, NBC News is interrupting your regularly-scheduled programming for an important news development that has just broke out. We're hearing that shots have been fired at President Ronald Reagan about a little over twenty minutes ago, at 1:56 PM KST at the Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters. The President was attending a military parade and other festivities over there when the shots rang out. As we're hearing, a total of 83 shots had been fired resulting in over 83 to nearly 102+ people being injured in the violent attack and the casualties have reached 57 according to the Korean Herald. We're turning to our foreign affairs correspondent in Seoul, South Korea about the tragedy that has just taken place. What do we know?"

Foreign Correspondent: "Good afternoon Tom, just about 20 minutes ago, President Reagan was attending the military parade festivities at the Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters when a group of unknown assailants opened fire at the leader of the free world, the highest elected official in the United States Federal Government. As several hundred people were applauding, US Secretary of State
George P. Shultz was sitting on the right side of the platform next to the President. We believe that this unknown group of assailants opened fire with a total of 83 to 373 gunshots ringing out either by sniper fire or machine-gun fire. According to eyewitnesses, the first three shots sounded like an automobile backfiring. Then the fourth, fifth and sixth shots rang out, striking the President in the right lower side of his chest and the sixth shot struck him in the abdomen, causing him to fall face first on the white table of the platform. We also heard that five Secret Service agents were hit by gunfire including six agents of the Korean Presidential Security Service including several dignitaries of the South Korean government and US Embassy personnel staff officials were wounded in the attack, plus we're hearing that 13 South Korean Army soldiers were killed in the violent ambush. Immediately afterwards, President Reagan was carried to the Presidential limousine and rushed to Seoul National University Hospital."

Brokaw: "How did this breakdown in security happen? You would've assumed that following the previous attempt on President Reagan's life two years ago, that proper measures would've been put into place. This is just two years following the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat on October 6, 1981 and most recently the assassinations of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II in 1982 including the most recent shocking assassination of former Philippine Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., on August 21st......"

Foreign Correspondent: "Tom, this will almost certainly be investigated very extensively. From what we know right now, the Secret Service, which is responsible for protecting the President, had extensively screened those attending the military parade festivities. But we just don't know how such a botched security protocol could occur."

Brokaw: "Now one of the most important questions: What do we know about the condition of President Reagan?"

Foreign Correspondent: "The information is quite limited here in Seoul, Tom. So I would strongly prefer not to speculate at this time. But what we do know is, that the 72-year-old President was apparently hit in the right lower side of his chest and in the abdomen, he is seriously wounded by this shooting. One police officer I was able to speak with, said the President was rushed to the Seoul National University Hospital via limousine. We don't know his current condition is right now. Out from the 373 shots fired, the first three shots sounded like an automobile backfiring, but the fourth, fifth and sixth shots struck President Reagan and over 373+ shots struck everyone else including several US Secret Service agents, Korean Presidential Security Service agents including other dignitaries."

Brokaw: "This doesn't sound good at all and while we can hope President Reagan recovers fully. Is it too soon to ask about who these shooters are?"

Foreign Correspondent: "We honestly don't know any details Tom. All we know is that a mysterious group came from all corners by surprising us and opening fire at us. It's quite clear they wanted to hit President Reagan and several other dignitaries. So we don't know anything about any particular motives, whether its political or otherwise."

Brokaw: "Do we have any updates on the whereabouts of Vice President Bush or any members of the Cabinet?"

Foreign Correspondent: "A colleague from the NBC News Washington, DC Bureau reporting from the White House phoned our team here in Seoul and said the Vice President was presiding inside the Senate floor in Washington, DC when he was abruptly rushed out of the Senate chambers. We were told Vice President
George HW Bush was presiding over the President's balanced budget initiatives with a bipartisan group of United States Senators. We can assume that Vice President Bush was already briefed on the situation in Seoul. No other word yet if he will address the nation because we haven't gotten any new updates on the condition of President Reagan, who we last checked, is currently undergoing emergency surgery at the Seoul National University Hospital."

Brokaw: "Thank you very much for giving us important, albeit tragic developments in Seoul, South Korea. We're going to keep our special programming on the situation right now because we think it's important to you, the viewers to know the latest every minute and every hour about the second assassination attempt on President Reagan's life. This is Tom Brokaw, NBC News in New York City."
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Chapter 17: Tippacanoe's Curse Strikes AGAIN!
Sunday, 13 November 1983

*President Reagan dies during emergency surgery at Seoul National University Hospital.
*Sixth US President to be assassinated following
Abraham Lincoln (1865); James Garfield (1881); William McKinley (1901);
John F. Kennedy (1963) and Gerald R. Ford (1975) in office.
*Vice President
George Herbert Walker Bush becomes the 42nd President of the United States.

ABC News Voice-over:
"We interrupt your regularly-scheduled programming to bring your a major ABC News Special Report."

Ted Koppel: "ABC News has gotten official confirmation from Jim Laurie, who is in Seoul, South Korea that
Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 41st President of the United States , died during emergency surgery at the Seoul National University Hospital at 3:00 PM Korean Standard Time. 9:00 AM Eastern Standard Time, just about some 56 minutes ago. Both BBC News and MBC News has officially confirmed that President Reagan has died from assassin's bullets. The doctors at the Seoul National University Hospital did everything and I do mean, everything they could to save his life, but it wasn't enough. Couldn't be enough due to the severe loss of blood.

Sunday, November 13th, 1983, will forever be the day which will live in infamy as well as where we were when we got this tragic news. As you can see, the American flag has been lowered to half-mast at the White House in Washington, DC because we're getting information that groups of people are walking towards the White House to laying down flowers, lighting candles for the 41st President of the United States.

I am being told in a few hours, Vice President
George Herbert Walker Bush has left the Capitol Building after being notified of today's tragic news. We don't know where he's heading, but we can safely assume in all likelihood, he will be taking the Presidential Oath of Office as the 42nd President of the United States. This is truly a sad day for America and the entire world."

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Chapter 18: Second Texan in the White House
Chapter 18: Answering The Call to Public Service: The Presidency of George Herbert Walker Bush as the 42nd President of the United States
Sunday, 13 November 1983
East Room, White House
Washington, DC

US Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist: "I, George Herbert Walker Bush, do solemnly swear...."

President George Herbert Walker Bush: "I, George Herbert Walker Bush, do solemnly swear......"

Chief Justice Rehnquist: "that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.
So help me God."

President Bush: "that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.
So help me God."

(Respectful mild applause).
Chief Justice Rehnquist: "Ladies and Gentlemen, the 42nd President of the United States."

President Bush: "Thank you very much Chief Justice Rehnquist. Distinguished guests, my fellow Americans and members of the international community.

This morning, I have to painfully announce to the American people that a patriot and one of the finest public servants that I've ever gotten to know, President Ronald Reagan has passed away. About less than two hours ago, I was informed by the White House Chief Medical Adviser that our beloved President didn't survive the severe gunshot wounds caused by today's shooting in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

I called First Lady Nancy Reagan and the Reagan family to express my deepest condolences on their unimaginable loss. I told them that Barbara and I are praying for them during this difficult time.
America stands with the Reagan family in this moment of tragedy and pain.

Later today, I will sign a presidential proclamation declaring 30 days of national mourning. Additionally, I will also sign an executive order lowering all flags on all federal government buildings including all across this nation as we mourn the loss of President Reagan.

Born in Tampico, Illinois on February 6, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports radio broadcaster for five years in Iowa. About five years later, he moved to California and became successful in the entertainment industry as a Hollywood actor including appearing in several major movie productions. From 1937 to 1945, he served in the United States Army Reserves and the United States Air Forces, serving in the 66th Calvary Division Unit, the 322nd and 33rd Calvary Regiments including the 18th Army Air Forces Base Unit during World War II in the American Theater.

From 1947 to 1952 and again from 1959 to 1960, he served as President of the Screen Actors Guild and during the 1950s, he moved to a career in television and later becoming a spokesperson for General Electric. Described as a citizen-politician in 1966, he won the California Governorship in one of the most resounding landslide victories in state history and was reelected in 1970. During his eight years in Sacramento, he turned around a budget shortfall and deficit into one of the most record-high budget surpluses.

His landslide election victory to the Presidency in 1980 constituted a major realignment towards conservative policies in the United States. His honesty, openess on ushering limited government, competence and friendship was valued across the political aisle and found international admiration. His tireless dedication of economic prosperity, strong national defense and foreign affairs with peace through strength; aggressively rebuilding of our Armed Forces making it one of the best militaries in the entire world; leading the United States out of the depths of chaos and ushering it into one of the most admired Shining City on a Hill. And even though he ventured into the entertainment industry and eventually politics, he never forgot where he came from nor forgot his humble beginnings. On a personal note, to myself and all members of the administration, this is a very painful loss, as we loved so dearly working with him.

My fellow Americans, America has lost a humble and dedicated public servant before his time through a sensless act of violence. But more importantly than sorrow and frustration, must be the spirit that President Reagan lived throughout his entire life.
Throughout our 227-year history of independence, we, the United States of America and its citizens must continue to remember the spirit and conviction about government and public service and must also be used for good to the betterment of all Americans no matter what neighborhood or zip code.

It's in the spirit of dedication, hardwork, fighting the good fight when necessary on issues of concern, making sure that we leave America in a much better place than we found it or inherited.

I ask all of you to join Barbara and I in praying for the Reagan family and all of the colleagues in Washington, DC., who lost a dear friend, husband, father, grandfather and servant of God this morning.

May God Bless the legacy and achievements of the 41st President of the United States, Ronald Wilson Reagan and may God Bless the United States of America."
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Chapter 18: The Aftermath of the Carnage in Seoul
3:39 PM KST, Sunday, 13 November 1983
Seoul National University Hospital
Seoul, Republic of Korea

20 January 1981: The Reagan's during happier times.

She was shell-shocked inside the waiting room and didn't know what to think about what had just happened. The ominous words from White House Chief of Staff James Baker, who repeated the words again: "I am so sorry Mrs. Reagan. So terribly sorry!"

Nancy immediately barged into the hallway demanding to see her husband as several people attempted to block her from going inside, "I am going to come into this fucking room if you don't let me by, or else I will run over you to do it!" One of the nurses, Choi Jae-hah calmly responded "Mrs. Reagan. Wouldn't you like some sedatives to calm you down?"

"I do NOT need any fucking sedatives. I want to see Ronnie immediately!" Nancy snapped. The outbursts escalated even further when she shoved one of the doctors out of the way in the hallway leading towards the operating room before Secretary Shultz advised them to let the former First Lady of the United States go inside the operating room to see Ronnie; they obliged.

Walking inside the operating room, it was all quiet and somber as the doctors and nurses bowed their heads out of respect. Also inside were several US Secret Service agents including Special Agent-in-Charge Frank Corrigan.

Dr. Kwan Jae-woo uncovered the white sheet, showing Ronnie's body. The adrenaline rush inside of Nancy as the full weight and force as the reality finally hit Nancy that her husband of 31 years was gone.

"RONNIE! OH MY GOD! NOT MY RONNIE!" Nancy wailed and cried as she hugged her husband's body. Everyone inside the operating room tried their best not to break down emotionally.

The sounds of Nancy's cries was heard in the hallways as some people began shedding tears.

After 16 minutes, the doctors and some of the nurses accompanied by several US Secret Service agents took Ronnie's body out of the operating room. "Where are they're taking Ronnie?" Nancy asked. Corrigan explained "Mrs. Reagan, they have to do the autopsy, so I strongly don't believe it's appropriate for us to be there." ROK President Chun Doo-hwan and his wife, ROK First Lady Madam Lee Soon-ja arrived at the Seoul National University Hospital to personally give Nancy their condolences.
Chapter 18: Highlights of the Bush Presidency
*Monday, 14 November 1983: The day after President Bush was inaugurated, Gallup took a quick nationwide poll. The polling survey found that 83% of respondents viewed George HW Bush inaugural address positively; while 73% viewed him as honest and trustworthy. 76% expressed confidence that he was up to the job, only 19% expressed doubts. Likewise, the media commented on Bush's speech. The speech which was drafted within hours and that reassured the country.

Gallup also polled on how Americans viewed the late President Ronald Reagan: 63% have a positive opinion of the late 41st President and 73% said his Presidency was a success; 27% said the opposite.

On November 14th, President Bush held his first official Cabinet meeting to discuss the political agenda and his upcoming address to Congress. During his opening remarks, the new chief executive asked all members to remain in their respective jobs, sources say. All members agreed to stay on and have some continuity. With it, the Reagan Administration has now become the Bush Administration. With Bush's ascension to the Presidency, the Vice Presidency became vacant and George Herbert Walker Bush will be the fourth President to nominate a new Vice President for Congressional approval under the 25th Amendment within the coming weeks.
Chapter 18: Upcoming Installments
AUTHOR'S NOTE: Upcoming Installments of Chapter 18 in The American Republic will include the following beginning this week:
*Highlights of the Public Viewing for President Reagan at the Rotunda of the California State Capitol Building in downtown Sacramento: Thursday, 17 November to Saturday, 19 November 1983.

*Saturday, 19 November 1983: Funeral Procession in Washington, DC.

*Saturday, 19 November to Monday, 21 November 1983: Highlights of the Lying in Repose inside the US Capitol Building Rotunda.

*Monday, 21 November 1983: State Funeral of President Reagan at the Washington National Cathedral.

*Highlights of the Sunset Gravesite Service at the Rancho del Cielo in Santa Barbara, California.
Chapter 18: Farewell to the Gipper (I)
Thursday, 17 November-Saturday, 19 November 1983
California State Capitol Building Rotunda
Sacramento, California

In the morning hours of November 17th, there was a brief family service conducted inside the Rotunda of the California State Capitol Building in downtown Sacramento, which was officiated by Donn Moomaw, the senior pastor of the Bel Air Presbyterian Church. Once the service concluded, the Reagan family approached the casket and said goodbyes before leaving and the doors of the State Capitol Building opened, where the public began filing inside at a rate of 2,000 per hour throughout the night. In all, about 108,000 people visited paying their respects to the late President Reagan.

*Saturday, 19 November 1983: On November 19th, Reagan's casket was removed from the California State Capitol Building and driven in a motorcade to the McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento. Thousands of people gathered to witness the departure of Special Air Mission 41, where "Hail to the Chief" was performed by the California State University Marching Band followed by the 21 Cannon Salute being fired by the California Army National Guard; Afterwards, the Reagan family boarded Special Air Mission 41 for the final trip to Washington, DC., which left McClellan Air Force Base at 9:42 AM PST.


Events in the Capitol began when Reagan's casket arrived at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland. Removed from the plane, driven by hearse in a procession through the Maryland and Virginia suburbs and the nation's capital, across the Arlington Memorial Bridge and onto Constitutional Avenue.

Near the Ellipse and within sight of the White House, the hearse halted and Reagan's body was transferred to a horse-drawn caisson for the funeral procession down Constitutional Avenue to Capitol Hill. Mrs. Reagan stepped out of the limousine to witness the casket's transfer; she was then met with warm greetings including applause with someone in the crowd yelling "We're with you, Nancy!". Next, the cortege began their 45-minute journey after 6:00 PM EST with the Reagan family following in limousines. Military units escorted the caisson as it made its way to the sounds of muffled drums. Behind the caisson, was a riderless horse named Sergeant York, carrying Reagan's riding boots reversed in the stirrups. The caisson paused at 4th Street and Constitutional Avenue, where 21 F-15s from Seymour Johnson Air Force Base of Goldsboro, North Carolina, flew over in missing-man formation.


Saturday, 19 November-Monday, 21 November 1983
The caisson stopped when it arrived at Capitol Hill; Military units representing all military branches of the United States Armed Forces, removed the casket and "Hail to the Chief" was performed amidst the 21 Cannon Salute. Soon afterwards, the casket was then carried up the steps of the West Front Grounds of the US Capitol Building, because Reagan was inaugurated there on 20 January 1981 and he wanted to face westward, towards his home State of California. Two teams of military pallbearers carried the casket up the steps of the Capitol to "The Battle Hymn of the Republic". When the casket reached former First Lady Nancy Reagan and her military escort, US Army Major General John L. Ballantene, III, Commander of the United States Army Military District of Washington, met it. As the casket passed them by, Mrs. Reagan pulled away from her military escort by reaching out and touching her husband's flag-draped casket. They soon followed it into the Capitol Rotunda.

The State Funeral Service took place inside the Rotunda of the US Capitol with eulogies delivered by US House Speaker Tip O'Neill (D-MA); US Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker (R-TN) and US Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger. Following the eulogies, O'Neill, Baker and Weinberger laid wreaths at the casket respectively and the Senate Chaplain, Richard C. Halverson, gave the benediction. Secretary Weinberger then escorted Mrs. Reagan to the casket, where she said her goodbyes followed by her family. The dignitaries inside soon paid their respects during the next half-hour. In a very rare instance, the doors of the US Capitol Building opened to the public, who stood in lines stretching many blocks to viewing the flag-draped casket of the 41st President of the United States.

In all, the general public, which included an estimated 104,684 paid their respects to President Reagan and about 6,000 per hour passed by the late President's casket during the Lying in Repose.
Chapter 18: Farewell to the Gipper (II)

11:00 AM EST, Monday, 21 November 1983
Washington National Cathedral
Washington, DC

An estimated 4,673 attended the State Funeral of President Reagan at the Washington National Cathedral. Among those in attendance: President and Mrs. Bush; former President Richard Nixon and his wife, former First Lady Pat Nixon and former President Linwood Holton and his wife, former First Lady Jinks Holton: both Nixon and Holton were the only living former Presidents in attendance. Former Vice Presidents Spiro Agnew and Edward W. Brooke, III also attended the State Funeral Service. Members of Congress including past and current US State/Territory Governors were also in attendance.

Foreign dignitaries attending the State Funeral came from 173 nations: UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar; European Commission President Gaston Thorn; Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau; Mexican President General Oscar Robles; Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone; British Prime Minister Geoffrey Howe; Chilean President Captain General Augusto Pinochet; Paraguayan President Major General Jackson Ballasteros; Colombian President Lieutenant Generarl Seymour Quintero; Brazilian President Joao Figueriedo; Taiwanese Premier Sun Yan-sun; Empress Farah Diba Pahlavi of Iran; Sovereign Prince Rainier, III of Monaco; French President Francois Mitterrand; King Juan Carlos I of Spain; King Bhumibol Aduljayeh of Thailand; Republic of Korea President Chun Doo-hwan and his wife, Republic of Korea First Lady Madam Lee Soon-ja; Philippine First Lady and Vice President Imelda Marcos; Indonesian President Suharto; Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak; former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin; Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew; Thai Prime Minister General Prem Tinsulanonda; Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; Gabonese President Omar Bongo; Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi; Bostwanan President Quett Masire; Swaziland Prime Minister Prince Bhekimpi Dlamini; Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga; Barbadoan Prime Minister Tom Adams; Dominican Prime Minister Eugenia Charles; Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier; Saint Lucian Prime Minister John Compton; Saudi Arabian President General Jamal Al-Fayheed; King Olav V of Norway; Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh (representing his son, King Charles, III and the British Royal Family); King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; King Baudoiun of Belgium; Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg; Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands; Queen Margrethe, II of Denmark. Among countless dignitaries included the members of the Diplomatic Corps.

The Right Reverend John T. Walker, Dean of the Washington National Cathedral, officiated the State Funeral. Eulogies were delivered by President George HW Bush; US Supreme Court Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and US Secretary of State George P. Shultz.

Chapter 18: Farewell to the Gipper (III)
6:00 PM PST, Monday, 21 November 1983
Rancho del Cielo
Santa Barbara, California

The Sunset Service drew an estimated 700+ invited guests, which included several dignitaries such as California Governor George Deukmejian; United States Senators Alan Cranston (D-CA) and Pete Wilson (R-CA); Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley; Hollywood celebrities such as Bob Hope and his wife, Dolores Hope; Jane Wyman (Reagan's first wife); Rock Hudson; Kirk Douglas; Charlton Heston; Los Angeles Dodgers MLB Manager Tommy Lasorda; Merv Griffin; Mickey Rooney; Ray Charles; Cesar Romero; Johnny Mathis; Tom Selleck and Bo Derek among many of the other attendees, which included high-ranking professional sports athletes.

Final eulogies were delivered by President Reagan's children: Maureen, Michael, Patti and Ronald, Jr.,

The Air Force Band of the Golden West played "Ruffles and Flourishes" and the US Army Chorus sung "The Star-Spangled Banner"; "Amazing Grace" was performed as well once the casket was moved to it gravesite and placed on a large white plinth.

There, the Rite of Committal was given, followed by the loud 21 Cannon Salute fired by the United States Marine Corps Artillery Unit; members of the United States Armed Forces Honor Guard then fired three volleys and a bugler played "Taps" at the time, when four Navy F/A-18 fighter jets flew over in missing-man formation and the flag, which had covered President Reagan's casket, was folded by the Honor Guard and was given to Governor Deukmejian, who personally presented the folded flag to Mrs. Reagan. Once she got up from her seat to say goodbye to Ronnie, she touched the casket by patting it softly. The grief she had tried her hardest to control became too much......leading her to finally cry with the entire world watching on live television: "I love you Ronnie" as she continued crying. Immediately afterwards, Maureen, Michael, Patti and Ron came to console and comfort her.

While the Reagan family said their final goodbyes, the Air Force Band of the Golden West played the Victorian hymn "My Faith Looks Up to Thee" as many of the 700+ invited guests paid their final respects which would take all night long. The casket was finally lowered into the vault and closed at 3:00 AM PST on Tuesday morning, November 22nd.

With that,
Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 41st President of the United States, was finally laid to rest.
Chapter 18: Ronald Wilson Reagan (41st President of the United States)
Ronald Wilson Reagan (6 February 1911-13 November 1983), was an American politician and actor, who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1981 until his assassination in 1983. A member of the Republican Party, his presidency was seen by many historians and analysts as the constituting of the famed Reagan Era and he was considered as one of the most prominent conservative figures in American history.

Having graduated from Eureka College in 1932, Reagan moved to Iowa to begin work as a sports radio broadcaster for five years until moving to California in 1937, where he became a very well-known film actor there including appearing in major movie production films. From 1947 to 1952 and again from 1959 to 1960, he served as the President of the Screen Actors Guild. He worked in television and spoke for General Electric during the 1950s. Having joined the Republican Party in 1962, Reagan gave a speech in 1964 for United States Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona's unsuccessful presidential campaign with the theme, "A Time for Choosing", which gained him nationwide attention as a new high-profile conservative figure in American politics. In 1966, Reagan handily defeated two-term incumbent Democratic Governor Edmund G. Brown, Sr., in a landslide to win the California Governorship. During his eight years in Sacramento, Reagan aggressively cracked down on university college student demonstrators, most famously the University of California-Berkeley; he also turned the Golden State's budget deficit shortfall into a budget surplus. It was also during his governorship, Reagan began the first of three presidential campaigns: 1968, 1976 and 1980. Having chosen not to seek reelection to a third term in 1974, Reagan ran unsuccessfully for the 1976 Republican Party presidential nomination, losing overwhelmingly to popular incumbent President Nelson Rockefeller in the 1976 Republican presidential primaries, Reagan rebounded to win the Republican Party presidential nomination four years later and won in a landslide victory over Democratic Governor Hugh L. Carey of New York State in the 1980 Presidential election carrying 45 out of 51 States with 57 percent of the nationwide vote.

Historians and presidential scholars have rated Reagan amongst the upper to middle-tier of American Presidents. During his presidency, Reagan survived an assassination attempt on 30 March 1981, just 69 days into his presidency; Also implemented Reaganomics, which involved massive deregulation and cuts in both taxes and government domestic spending programs during the stagflation period. He also appointed three justices to the United States Supreme Court: Sandra Day O'Connor (1981) and William Rehnquist and Antonin Scalia (both in 1982): Rehnquist was appointed to serve as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He also escalated the Strategic Defense Initiative and pursued the Reagan Doctrine on Foreign Policy: which continued the dismantling of Detente that began under the administrations of Nelson Rockefeller (1975-1979) and Linwood Holton (1979-1981). Among the foreign policy hot-spots during the Reagan administration: The Falklands War of 1982 between the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom; The Invasion of Grenada (1983); Assassinations of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1981); British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Queen Elizabeth II (1982); former Philippine Senator Benigno Aquino, Sr., (1983); The Taiwanese Invasion of the Mainland (Fall 1982) among countless other international incidents when it came to foreign policy and international affairs. Reagan also fostered close relationships with conservative military dictatorships in Mexico, Argentine Republic, Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, Guatemala, El Salvador; he also pushed for continued relationships with numerous international Heads of State/Government in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, West Germany, Netherlands, Taiwan, the Philippines, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Israel, Egypt, Jordan; Reagan fostered relationships with Jamaica, Haiti, Barbados, the Bahamas, and Dominica.

While in the midst of his Asian Pacific Tour, Reagan was assassinated on November 13, 1983 while attending a military parade at the Republic of Korea Army 1st Corps Headquarters in Seoul, Republic of Korea. His assassination led to major international ramifications which resulted in a full-scale war in the Asian Pacific that caused the downfall of the pro-Soviet, pro-Chinese communist dictatorship of North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung in Operation BootStick, which occurred during the administration of his successor, George HW Bush.

Following the State Funeral festivities, Reagan was originally buried at the Rancho del Cielo. Upon completion of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, Reagan was entombed at his presidential library in the Summer of 1991.

Ronald Reagan

Official Presidential Portrait, 1981
41st President of the United States
In office
20 January 1981-13 November 1983
Vice President
George HW Bush
Preceded by Linwood Holton
Succeeded by George HW Bush
33rd Governor of California
In office
2 January 1967-6 January 1975
Lieutenant Robert Finch
Edwin Reinecke (1969-1974)
John L. Harmer (1974-1975)
Preceded by Pat Brown
Succeeded by Jerry Brown
9th and 13th President of the Screen Actors Guild
In office
16 November 1959-7 June 1960
Preceded by Howard Keel
Succeeded by George Chandler
In office
10 March 1947-10 November 1952
Preceded by Robert Montgomery
Succeeded by Walter Pidgeon
******Personal details******
Ronald Wilson Reagan
6 February 1911
Tampico, Illinois, United States
Died 13 November 1983 (aged 72)
Seoul, Republic of Korea
Cause of death
Resting place Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
Simi Valley, California,
United States
Political party Republican (from 1962)
Other political affiliations Democratic (until 1962)
Spouses Jane Wyman (m. 1940; divorced, 1949)
Nancy Davis (m. 1952)
Children 5 including Maureen, Michael, Patti and Ron
Jack Reagan
Nelle Wilson
Relatives Neil Reagan (brother)
Alma mater Eureka College (BA)
Occupation Actor*politician*sports broadcaster*union leader
******Military Service******
Service United States Army
(Reserves/Air Forces)
Years of Service
1937-1942 (Reserve)
1942-1945 (Active)
Rank Captain
Unit 322nd Calvary Regiment
323rd Calvary Regiment
18th AAF Base Unit
Wars World War II

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Chapter 18: Sports Roundup (Fall 1983: I)

The undefeated #2 Texas Longhorns finished the 1983 College Football Season undefeated with a record of (12-0), as the Southwestern Conference Champions handily defeated the #7 Georgia Bulldogs (9-2-1) by a score of 73-23 in the 1983 Cotton Bowl Classic at the Cotton Bowl Stadium in Dallas, Texas: Despite suffering a fumble early by Texas Longhorns defensive back Craig Curry in the 2nd Quarter, which allowed Georgia quarterback John Lastinger running for 17 yards for the Bulldogs touchdown in the first half around the 3:29 mark which cut the Longhorns' lead to 35-7 before halftime. However, soon afterwards, the Longhorns outscored the Bulldogs 38-16 resulting in the final score of 73-23; The Most Valuable Player of the Game Award was given to Longhorns quarterback Rick McIvor, who finished the game with 37/73 passes for 573 yards and six touchdowns.

Winning the fourth national championship gave Head Coach Fred Akers something that nobody would ever try to take away from him: winning the national championship in the Post-Darrell K. Royal Era: after near misses in 1977 and again in 1981.

*Highlights of the 1983 NBA Finals:
*Highlights of the 1983 MLB World Series
*Highlights of the 1983 NHL Stanley Cup Finals
*Highlights of the 1983 NFL Season

Upcoming Sports Installement in Chapter 18: NFL 1983 Super Bowl Championship
How the Los Angeles Raiders thoroughly humiliated the defending Super Bowl Champion Washington Redskins as the Raiders
marched to their third Super Bowl Championship in franchise history
Chapter 18: Sports Roundup (Summer 1983: II)

*May 22-31, 1983: In a rematch of the 1980 NBA Finals and 1982 NBA Finals match-ups, the Eastern Conference Champion Philadelphia 76ers swept the defending NBA Champion Los Angeles Lakers of the Western Conference in four games (4-0). Following losing previous NBA Finals matchups in 1950, 1954, 1980 and 1982, the 76ers defeated the Lakers for the very first time in the history of the NBA Finals. The Most Valuable Player of the 1983 NBA Finals was 76ers center Moses Malone; Television coverage of the 1983 NBA Finals was broadcast by CBS with commentators Dick Stockton and Bill Russell with Brent Musburger as the host, while Kevin Loughery was the pre-game, halftime and post-game analysts of CBS Sports.

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