Alternate History ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ November 2, 1976: President Nelson Rockefeller wins election to full 4-year term and the aftermath

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Chapter 15: She is Miss Universe 1983
She IS The Fairest Of Them All!
Monday, 11 July 1983
Kiel Auditorium
Saint Louis, Missouri
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......"I couldn't believe it. I couldn't believe that they had chosen me."

......"Being crowned was a surreal experience. I felt like I was going through the motions. When I look at footage of me walking up the stairs and being bombarded by all the other girls, I remember it was a lot-it was scary."
-Lorraine Elizabeth Downes
32nd Miss Universe 1983
Exclusive Interview: Miss Universe Titleholders Through the Years


In front of a worlwide television audience of 700 million, 19-year-old Aucklander Lorraine Downes' shocked reaction won the entire world's hearts as she won the Miss Universe Crown defeating the heavily-favoured Miss USA Julie Hayek.

Downes made history indeed by becoming the first New Zealander to win the Miss Universe Crown.

Downes wore a midnight blue ball gown designed by Dawn McGowan from Television New Zealand's wardrobe department. The presence of Downes' parents in the crowd gave her a huge boost following three weeks of rehearsals, media calls, parties and early mornings.

Prime Minister Robert Muldoon sent Downes a telegram which read: "Congratulations. All New Zealanders are very proud of you. Beating the Australians at rugby league and now the world at beauty, poise, and charm. Well done." Several days earlier, the New Zealand Kiwis had beaten the Kangaroos. Minister of Tourism Rob Talbot began thinking how New Zealand should capitalize on Downes' upset victory, "From the coverage last night, I think this is the greatest international coverage New Zealand has ever had from one personality."

Downes returned to New Zealand briefly and attended a function at Parliament House in Wellington, where Talbot appointed her as Honorary Ambassador of New Zealand "for the magnificent public relations job she has done for this country." Upon her arrival at Parliament House for the official Welcoming Honors Ceremony, Downes was greeted by an Honour Guard of marching girls and 200 MPs and countless dignitaries. She also met with Prime Minister Muldoon and his wife, Thea Muldoon during a special Courtesy Call at Premier House (Residence of the Prime Minister).


 
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Chapter 16: Leaving Boston for the final time
Chapter 16: Ninoy's plan to return back to the Philippines
4:35 PM EST, Saturday, 13 August 1983
Logan International Airport
Winthrop, Massachusetts

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Former Philippine Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., interviewed on "The 700 Club" in 1981.
In the first quarter of 1983, former Philippine Senator Benigno Simeon 'Ninoy' Aquino, Jr., received news about the deteriorating political situation in his beloved homeland including the declining health of his archrival, three-term Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, who had been battling lupus and kidney failure. He believed it was expedient for him to speak with Marcos and present him his rationale for the country's eventual return to democracy, before extremists took over and made such change impossible.

Moreover, Aquino's years of absence made his allies completely worried that the Filipinos might've resigned themselves to Marcos' violent authoritarian strongman dictatorship and they without Aquino's leadership, the centrist opposition would be dying a quiet natural death. Knowing the inevitable danger and death awaiting him, Aquino doubled-down on his plans on returning home to the Philippines.

His family, however, learned from a Philippine Consular General official that there were explicit orders from the Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs not to issue any passports for them. At that time, their passports had expired and their renewals had been denied. They therefore formulated a specific detailed plan for Aquino flying alone, in order to attract less attention from Philippine authorities, with the rest of the family following him two weeks later.

Despite the Philippine government's ban issuing him a passport, one sympathizer working in the Philippine Consulate through the assistance of Roque R. Alban, Jr., who was then serving as a Philippine Congressman, managed to get Aquino through unnoticed and secretly.

The Marcos government warned all international airlines that they would be denied landing rights and force to return if they tried to fly Aquino to the Philippines. Aquino insisted that it was his natural rights as a Filipino citizen to come back to his homeland and that no government could prevent him from doing so. Aquino boarded an aircraft along with his brother-in-law, Ken Kashiwahari, who was working as an ABC News correspondent out of San Francisco, California including several others accompanying him on the long flight back to the Philippines. They left the Logan International Airport at 4:35 PM EST on Saturday afternoon as Aquino said goodbye to his family for the final time, taking circulatous route home from Boston, Massachusetts via Los Angeles, California then later to Singapore, where then Tunku Ibrahim of Johor met Aquino upon his arrival in Singapore and later brought him to Johor, where Aquino met with other Malaysian leaders. Once in Johor, Aquino met with Tunku Ibrahim's father, Sultan Iskandar, who was a close friend of Aquino's.

COMING UP IN CHAPTER 16 OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC: Part II of Ninoy Aquino's flight back to the Philippines.
 
Author's Note on Chapter 16
AUTHOR'S NOTE ON CHAPTER 16: Merry Christmas to you and your families ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐ŸŽ„๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ท

Hoping all of you on Sietch are enjoying your Christmas holiday break. Sometime this week, I'll be heavily focused on Chapter 16 of the American Republic as I'll be working on the following installments:
*Former Philippine Senator Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr., and his long flight back home to the Philippines.
*Sunday, 21 August 1983: Day that will live in infamy.
*Ramifications of the 08.21.83 Incident in Manila.
*Personal PoV's
 
Upcoming Installments of Chapters 17 and 18
AUTHOR'S NOTE ON CHAPTERS 17 AND 18: Here's the upcoming Installments of The American Republic:
*Personal PoV's (Fall 1983)
*National Headlines (Fall 1983)
*International Headlines (Fall 1983)
*National Personal PoV's (Fall 1983)
*International Personal PoV's (Fall 1983)
*Pop Culture (Fall 1983)
 
Chapter 16: International Personal PoV's (Summer 1983)
NSFW DISCLAIMER: The following Installment will be NSFW-erotic. Viewer discretion is advised.

The Thirsty Colombian Dictator

4:20 PM, Sunday, 14 August 1983
Quintero Family Ranch
Saint Quintero, Colombia
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......"Quintero couldn't control his damn zipper whenever he saw young teenage girls. He was eye-googling at them like they were pieces of meat."
-Anonymous audio recording from unspecified Colombian Army Aide-de-Camp to Colombian President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero


Colombian President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero was outspoken, flamboyant and controversial. His outspoken controversial critiques on foreign policy was legendary from his aggressive attacks against the Reagan administration's foreign policy doctrine to the so-called Independent Foreign Policy initiatives by courting the Soviet Union, Cuba, Nicaragua, Romania and others.

There was also questions about Quintero's personal life....Or so those who were curious to know about the personal life of the Colombian military strongman, who had guarded his private life very private.

His penchant for having passionate steamy sex with Afro-Colombian women and Jewish women ultimately resulting in being the father of over 83+ children.

Depending on whom you ask: there were allegations that Quintero had secret underground tunnels installed from all-girls boarding schools toward the Presidential Palace in Bogota: among those meeting the flamboyant leftist Colombian President were a group of young teenage female Quintero-istas, where they supposedly "spent vacation time" with Quintero for like three weeks.....when in reality, he was engaged in secret orgies of sex escapades with them.

One of those young female Quintero-istas, who ultimately became his domestic partner was Yolonda Marquez, who met the widowed Quintero in the Fall of 1979 during a special function event at the Bogota Symphony Orchestra concert. Long story short, the two immediately engaged in passionate steamy sex escapades everyday 24/7: inside his private quarters of the Presidential Palace in Bogota and also at the Quintero Family Ranch in the outskirts of Saint Quintero. Yolonda ended up pregnant and give birth to six healthy daughters.

Another young female Quintero-ista, Susanna Ballasteros, who was of Jewish descent. She met Quintero in the Summer of 1981 during the Female Quintero Party's annual function ball. He and Susanna both engaged in a steamy sex escapade at his family ranch as well: Susanna ended up getting pregnant and gave birth to triplet daughters.

Another incident was that Quintero, Yolonda and Susanna engaged in steamy threesome orgy sex escapade at the Quintero Family Ranch non-stop. Quintero's secret "vacation trips" was really about having sex with both Yolonda and Susanna at his family ranch. The out of control sex addiction of the flamboyant leftist Colombian President was quite common knowledge amongst the populace, when asked by foreign news media or Colombian news media, shrugged it off basically saying "As long as Quintero is doing a good job as President, it's none of our business. He can do whatever he wants and Colombia keeps pushing forward toward the future."

Even the young female nuns at boarding school weren't spared from the Dictator's sexual appetite: Isabelle DeRosa was 17 years old back in the evening of 1 November 1981 when she met Quintero during an evening function at the Saint Mary Academy of Girls. She took a drink of refreshment when she felt sleepy and groggy; Quintero offered to give her a ride home. When she woke up in the early morning hours of 2 November 1981: Isabelle looked underneath the bed covers and realized she was naked and barefoot. Quintero slithered up next to her and kissed her on the lips. She kissed him back and they had sex again for a few more hours. Long story short: Isabelle ended up pregnant and gave birth to three sons and three daughters.

Colombian women of ethnicities and nationalities were attracted to the irresistible Quintero, whose super aggressive sexual appetites got majority of whom pregnant.

One instance of this occurred when Quintero was in the middle of working visits to Romania, Yugoslavia and Poland: where the young women he met ended up having sex with him during their secret encounters. Then-Miss Universe Jamaica Zairia McPhersen back in the Spring of 1979 engaged in a secret sex escapade with Quintero during his visit to the Caribbean country: It's unknown how long they engaged in passionate sex, but it might've been for like five days. Anonymous sources believe that explained why Quintero sounded drowsy and sleepy including with slurred speech during the State Funeral of then-US President Nelson Rockefeller on 3 February 1979 at the Washington National Cathedral in Washington, DC.

Quintero made sure all of his secret escapades were staying secret forever.
 
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Upcoming Installments for Chapter 17
AUTHOR'S NOTE ON UPCOMING INSTALLMENTS IN CHAPTER 17:

The following Personal PoV's on the following foreign Heads of State to be discussed in Chapter 17:
*French President Francois Mitterrand.
*King Juan Carlos I of Spain.
*King Olav V of Norway.
*Taiwanese President Chiang Ching-kuo.
*King Bhumibol Adulayehj of Thailand.
*Argentine Republic President General Reynaldo Bignone.
*Uruguyan President General Gregorio Conrado Alvarez.
*Brazilian President Joao Figueriedo.
*Philippine President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.,
 
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Chapter 16: Ninoy comes to the Republic of Singapore
Arrival in Singapore
12:25 PM SST, Sunday, 14 August 1983


Besides meeting with Sultan Iskandar and many other high-profile figures, Aquino was then quietly whisked across the border to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the former Philippine Senator met with high-ranking officials from Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia, explaining to them why he was going back home to the Philippines and what specific details that he was hoping to achieve.

Former Lanao del Sur Congressman Rashid Lucman helped Aquino circumvent the orders from Malacanang Palace in not issuing any passports to the Aquino family, which provided him with a passport under the alias: Marical Bonifacio, a reference to the infamous Martial Law period (1972-1981) including Aquino's detention at Fort Bonifacio. Back in Singapore, the former Philippine Senator picked a Taiwanese passport visa for his Bonifacio passport in order to avoid being detected by the Philippine government authorities.

Knowing that diplomatic relations between Taiwan and the Philippines had been terminated since 1975, this made Aquino feel even more secure; the Taiwanese government could claim "plausible denialibity" and also claim they weren't even aware of his presence in the island nation. There would also be a couple of Taiwanese friends accompanying him along the way in his trip back to the Philippines. Believeing there would no fewer chances of being discovered by the Philippine law enforcement authorities while residing in the Taiwanese Republic.

COMING UP IN THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC: Arrival in the Taiwanese Republic.
 
Chapter 16: Ninoy in Taiwan
Arriving in the Taiwanese Republic
Friday, 19 August 1983
Grand City Hotel
Taipei, Taiwan

Following picking up his Taiwanese passport for his Bonifacio passport on August 19th, Aquino begin preparing to fly towards the next destination: Hong Kong, where he would be changing planes for the short trip to Taipei, Taiwan.

At the check-in counter, however, the ticket agent was looking at Ninoy's "Marical Bonifacio" passport, and in an apparent surprise, dropped it. She then called her supervisor. "This is it, they've got me," Aquino was thinking to himself. However, the ticket agent allowed him to board the plane without any other incident which would've attracted attention for obvious reasons; And he never found out why she dropped the passport. From his flight from Hong Kong to Taipei, Ninoy then switched the Bonifacio passport; except for the Taiwanese passport visa and a fake Manila departure stamp, which someone had obviously forged successfully for him back in the United States, the passport pages were thoroughly clean------which began arousing suspicions of the immigration officer in Taipei, which had scared some of Aquino's friends, who wondered "Uh-oh. Here we go again......" they thought with the assumption that the Taiwanese government might hand him over to the Philippine authorities.

"Where did you come from?" the immigration officer asked. Aquino quickly responded" "From Manila."
"But the flight came from Hong Kong," the officer pressed.
"Yeah, but I had to fly to Hong Kong to make a connection because I couldn't get a direct flight," responded Aquino.

Because Aquino's responses and answers were so convincing and persuasive. And with no other alternatives, the officer decided to let Aquino go ahead and boarding the next flight.

In Taipei, the capital city of the Taiwanese Republic, Aquino stayed at the Grand City Hotel. Soon after arriving, he received indirect communication that China Airlines had learned about his presence in Taipei. He was stunned by this development and decided to do something about it: notifying the Taiwanese government through an intermediary to determine if the government would prevent him from boarding the flight of China Airlines.

Through another intermediary, the Taiwanese government responded: "We have never heard of Aquino and we do not know that he is in Taiwan." Aquino relaxed for a little bit and begin making plans on how to continue proceeding plans when arriving in Manila.

On Saturday, August 20th, the journalists who accompanied Aquino and his friends to Manila, arrived in Taipei, and Aquino spent most of the day and evening being interviewed in his hotel room of the Grand City Hotel.
 
Chapter 16: The Interview in Taiwan
The Final Interview
7:41 PM TST, Saturday, 20 August 1983
Taipei Grand Hotel
Taipei, Taiwan



Spending most of the day being interviewed inside his hotel room, Aquino was asked by reporters about an alleged plot to assassinate him. To this, he answered with bravura, although as he was to indicating later, still believed it was a typical ploy of the Marcos administration. "Assassination is the part of public service," he told one reporter. "Look what happened to President Reagan less two years ago. If it's my fate to die by an assassin's bullet, so be it. But I cannot be petrified by inaction or fear of assassination and therefore stay in a corner."

Telling a Japanese television news crew, Aquino told them: "You have to be very ready with your hand camera, because the action can happen very fast. In a matter of three or four minutes, it could be all over and I may not be able to talk to you again after this."

He also had been in constant telephone contact with his family and supporters back home in the Philippines and he told another reporter he had received word that he might be "hit" at the airport and that the assassin would be shot in return. "That's why I'm going to wear this," referring to the bullet-proof vest he had with him. "But if they hit me in the head, I'm a goner." Though tragically prophetic, it wasn't much a premonition as an indication of another rumor he had heard. Still on the eve of an uncertain homecoming, Aquino seemed to begin taking the death threats more seriously than he had before.

Max Vanzi, a correspondent with UPI News Agency, just arrived from San Francisco, California with the latest wire story from Manila: General Fabian Ver, the most powerful right-hand men of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos and also Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, was quoted as saying that if Senator Aquino arrived in Manila, he would be quickly put back on the plane and returned to his departure point.

Dismissing General Ver's statement as preposterous, Aquino laughed at the notion of seeing himself becoming a diplomatic ping-pong ball between the Philippine and Taiwanese governments: Marcos sending him back to Taipei; Taiwan refusing to accept him and sending him back to the Philippines. But in the same wire story, Ver also warned that there's a possibility of Aquino being killed upon arrival at the airport. When he heard that, Aquino's body language changed "Oh my God!" he muttered. Ver was the Philippine government official that Aquino rightfully distrusted the most, describing him as blindly loyal to President Marcos. "Ver is so loyal if Marcos told him to jump from a building, he would salute and say, 'What floor sir?'".

Once all of the reporters left the hotel room, Aquino and his brother-in-law Ken Kashiwahara were alone inside. He commented that this was the first time General Ver had talked publicly about assassination. He also voiced another concern: hearing news from Manila that the opposition leaders wouldn't be allowed to greet him at planeside. Aquino had wanted them there in demonstrating to Marcos that the opposition was united together. "That's a bad sign," he said. "What it means is that they're going to play hardball." Adding quietly: "You know. The best thing might be if they turn the plane around tomorrow." Still considering assassination a remote possibility and certaintly not at the airport: not with reporters and cameramen accompanying him. One of the biggest conerns that Aquino had was that the Philippine government would stop the plane at the end of the runway and whisk him off to prison, where he would be held incommunicado.

Kashiwahara told Aquino about the preparations being made for his Manila homecoming. Leaflets were being distributed at universities, yellow ribbons were being tied to trees (recalling the song 'Tie a Yellow Ribbon 'Round the Old Oak Tree' about a former prisoner returning home) and a big crowd was expected to arrive at the Manila International Airport.
 
Chapter 16: The Final Flight to Manila.....
Ninoy's Last Flight Home to the Philippines
5:00 AM TST, Sunday, 21 August 1983
Taipei Grand Hotel
Taipei, Taiwan
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Aquino had only been asleep for just four hours. By early Sunday morning at 5:00 AM TST, he woke up by saying his rosary again and called his wife, Corazon, in Boston, Massachusetts, for the final time. She read the Bible to him. He also spoke briefly to his five children and cried. He then sat down and wrote each of them a letter. In just about several hours, the world was going to become altered......

When Kashiwahara arrived in his brother-in-law's hotel room, Ninoy was his usual exuberant self. Ken was wearing a biege safari shirt similar to the ones he wore when he was covering the Vietnam War. Ninoy looked at him and broke out a huge grin: "My God, man, what's that you're wearing? You look like you're going to cover a war!" Kashiwahara responded "Look at you", he bantered. "What are you, a white knight in shining armor? And look at that patch? What does that stand for? Boy Scouts of America?"

For just a moment, Kashiwahara became serious. "Listen," he said. "if they come to get you on the plane, I want you to tell them that your brother-in-law is with you and you want him to go with you." Ninoy readily agreed.

The mood during breakfast continued to be jovial. He had ordered room service: eggs, bacon and toast. He also asked for ketchup, which he poured over his eggs. He always ate his eggs this way and from the look on Kashiwahara's face including body language, Ken looked in mock revulsion saying "That's disgusting."

Ninoy then talked about the phone call to his wife and said "One regret I have is Cory has had to suffer so much." Ninoy's political career had kept him away from home a lot and Cory knew there was some risk in his return home, but had stood by him. "You know Kris really wanted to come with me," he continued wistfully. Kris was his 12-year-old daughter and the youngest of the five Aquino children. "But I had to tell her 'No'". After packing his belongings and other things, it was time to leave Taipei for the trip back to Manila.

COMING UP IN THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC: The final interview while flying to Manila
 
Chapter 16: Ninoy's final interview while flying to Manila
The Final Interview while flying to Manila
Sunday, 21 August 1983
Somewhere over the skies of Taiwan
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As China Airlines Boeing 767 reached cruising altitude, the cameramen and reporters nosily went into action, crowding the aisles near Ninoy's seat. They were quickly asked to go to the rear of the airplane, which was virtually empty.

Ninoy spent most of the in-flight posing for photographs and giving interviews. Finally, interviews over, Ninoy returned to his original seat, but was besieged by a handful of Filipino passengers. One woman kept kissing him and the cameras rolled again. Ninoy was embarrassed. "My wife's not going to like this," he muttered. Other Filipinos asked for his autograph. One shoved her passport in front of him and asked him to sign it. He started to do so. "Noy, you can't sign a passport!" Kashiwahara exclaimed. He hadn't realized what he was signing and autographed her boarding card instead.

Just before the plane began its descent, Ninoy took out his bullet-proof vest, went to the bathroom and put it on. When he sat down again, he turned to Kashiwahara and wondered if they were going to land. There had been speculation that the Manila control tower would refuse permit the plane to touch down and would order it back to Taipei. "I think it's a victory if we just land," Ninoy said. "Evertying else is a bonus." As the plane descended over a Philippine landscape of rice fields and rural villages, Ninoy reached into his bag and handed Kashiwahara a box. "Here," he said, "I want you to have my watch." Kashiwahara was stunned. "Why? Why are you doing this?" Ninoy replied "I just want you to have it." Kashiwahara took it as a symbol of their adventure together.

Then he repeated some instructions he had given his brother-in-law earlier. "Don't forget to go to my house as soon as we land and have someone take my belongings to me in prison. It's the same stuff I had there before. They'll know." Kashiwahara turned away for just a few minutes and when he looked back, Ninoy was fingering his rosary beads, his lips moving in silent prayer.

As the China Airlines Boeing 767 aircraft touched down, Kashiwahara turned and said: "Noy, we're home." Ninoy smiled. Then came the tense minutes while the plane taxied. Kiyoshi Wakamiya, a Japanese correspondent and close friend of Ninoy's who sat next to Kashiwahara, was getting clearly agitated. Looking out the window, he exclaimed that the tarmac was deserted. Kashiwahara leaned over to look. As the China Airlines Boeing 767 aircraft taxied by other planes by the terminal, the absence of activity appeared ominous. But then Kashiwahara caught a glimpse of two maintenance men under two of the planes and dismissed the fear.

When China Airlines Boeing 767 turned into Gate 8, Wakamiya could see part of the welcoming crowd in front of the terminal building. Ninoy looked pleased. But as they pulled into the gate, Kashiwahara noticed several soldiers dressed in khakis standing under the jetway. A vehicle was parked there, too. Then a blue van pulled up, the back door opened and a group of soldiers dressed in blue fatigues and carrying rifles and pistols jumped out, fanning around the plane. Inside, a ripple of nervous chatter began spreading through the plane as people crowded the windows, watching the activity on the tarmac. Shutters clicked in a half-dozen cameras.

What happens next would alter the course of Philippine history including the world.
 
Chapter 16: The Shots Heard Around the World
YOU BASTARDS! GODDAMMIT!
Sunday, 21 August 1983
Manila International Airport
Manila, Philippines
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Once the engines of China Airlines Boeing 767 shut down altogether, three khaki-clad soldiers began quickly climbing up the service stairs of the jetway. The tension began increasing faster and faster. "Noy, they're coming to get you," Kashiwahara warned. He was nervous, but still assumed they were going to escort Ninoy back to prison and that the soldiers in blue were there as "window dressing"------providing security because of the alleged assassination plots.

Passengers began disembarking. Cameramen and photographers remained at the windows. Then came an announcement over the plane's intercom: "Would all passengers please remain on board." For a few seconds there was silence, then everyone resumed talking.

The three soldiers began making their way down the aisle, stepping around photographers and cameramen, who by now, were standing or kneeling on seats, camera shutters clicking. The first soldier walked right past Ninoy, but the second one, who wore sunglasses, recognized him. The third soldier bent down; Ninoy smiled and shook his hand (Kashiwahara remembered Lupita (his wife and Ninoy's sister) once telling him that Filipinos are cordial even to their enemies). They exchanged a few words in Tagalog. Then Ninoy stood up from his seat and the three soldiers began to escort the former Philippine Senator and opposition leader out of the aircraft.

By now, the sounds of excited chatter had quickly gone up several decibels. All the while, the shutters clicked and cameramen, photographers and reporters shouted and jostled for vantage points.

Kashiwahara waited for Ninoy to tell the soldiers that he wanted his brother-in-law to accompany him, but he didn't and began walking away from him. Over the noise, Kashiwahara shouted a reminder to him: "Noy, can I go with you?" He turned back and looked at him for a split second, unsmiling. Without breaking stride, he quickly said the final words uttered in his life: "Yeah, come on!" The last soldier leading him out was just ahead of Kashiwahara, who leaned forward and said "I'm his brother-in-law. Can I go with him?" The soldier turned back and ordered "You just take your seat!"

Undeterred, Kashiwahara decided to follow anyway, but the passenger compartment became chaotic. Television crews and photographers jumped in front of him to follow too, pushing and shoving as they left the plane and stepped onto the jetway leading into the terminal. But once inside the jetway, the soldiers abruptly pushed Ninoy out the service door. Plainclothes security guards who had been waiting in the jetway pushed the windowed door shut and blocked it on the outside. Cameramen and reporters pushed against the door, shouting at each other and at the guards. Kashiwahara pushed too, straining to see over them, but he wasn't able to get a clearer view.

Then all of a sudden just nine seconds after Ninoy went out the door, everyone inside heard the gunshot: BANG!

Almost immediately, there was non-stop pandemonium. Everyone inside pushed even more harder, trying to get the door open. Four seconds later, everyone heard three additional gunshots: BANG! BANG! BANG! This time, the jetway was being filled with shouts. Then all of a sudden, a burst of automatic rifle-fire. 'GODDAMMIT!" Kashiwahara yelled loudly. "Bastards! Bastards! This wasn't supposed to happen! It couldn't have happened!"

Struggling to get any view of what was going on outside, Kashiwahara had to see what was happening, but couldn't in the crush. He ran over to a window of the jetway, but couldn't see anything from there either. Reporters and camera-crews stampeded back into the plane, hoping to get better views. He ran after them. Inside the plane, passengers were screaming. The journalists were pushing against the windows to see what was happening, climbing over passengers to do so.

Kashiwahara was shaking with rage: "What happened? What happened?" he shouted. Vanzi, the UPI correspondent, approached. "I'm sorry," he said with a stunned look on his face. "I saw him on the ground. He was shot in the head. There was a lot of blood. I'm sure he's dead."

"Are you sure it was him? Are you sure?" Kashiwahara frantically said. Vanzi replied, "Yeah, I'm sure. I'm sorry man." Kashiwahara wasn't satisfied and he asked Wakamiya, who gasped "They killed him! They killed him!"

By the time Kashiwahara fought his way to the window, Ninoy's body was already gone. The soldiers had lifted him into the blue van and quickly driven off, he was told. There was only a body dressed in blue on the tarmac.

"Those bastards! Those bastards!" Kashiwahara kept muttering over and over non-stop. Reporters began asking passengers what they saw. Some passengers were crying; some reporters were in a complete state of shock. Photographers were still pointing their cameras out of the windows. With Ninoy's body gone, the only thing Kashiwahara could think of at this point, was getting out into the terminal to tell his wife, Lupita and Ninoy's mother, Dona Aurora Aquino about what had happened.

He ran through the jetway toward the terminal. There was a long line at the immigration center. Kashiwahara ran to the front and told first man in line: "My brother-in-law has been shot. I have to get through." He quickly stepped back.

Once through immigration, Kashiwahara ran into some journalists who were there to cover the homecoming. "Where's Lupita?" Ken asked frantically. Lupita had been the family's contact with the press corps. They pointed him to the VIP Room in the far corner of the terminal. On the way there, some family members called his name and tried to stop him. Ken kept walking.

The VIP Room was completely jammed with reporters and cameramen. Ken called for Lupita. Cameras began pointing toward him; microphones were thrust in his face. "What happened?" they asked. He didn't answer. Ken finally found Lupita and he was still shaking. She too him into a corner and he told her about what happened. Someone struck a microphone between them, which pissed off Kashiwahara "Get that goddam thing out of my face!" he yelled, shoving it away. "He was my brother-in-law." Unconsciously, Kashiwahara had used the past tense. He then saw Ninoy's mother, Dona Aurora, sitting in the chair looking at him, with deep sorrow in his eyes. He didn't have the heart to tell her. Kashiwahara went over, kissed and hugged her "Mommy" was all Kashiwahara had to say.

Following getting some official confirmation that Ninoy was dead from several television news correspondents including ABC News correspondent Jim Laurie, Kashiwahara was taken by his wife, Lupita, who told him "Let's get out of here." Their vehicle itched its way through the horrendous Manila traffic and Ken's impatience grew with every second. He wanted to get to a telephone and call Cory (Ninoy's wife of 29 years). He had promised that he would call as soon as they arrived in Manila.

Finally at the home of one of Lupita's sisters, Ken phoned Boston. He was still shaking obviously. He even dreaded making the phone call. Cory answered and spoke very calmly. She had already been called by Japanese Congressman Shintaro Ishihara, one of Ninoy's close friends, who had heard the news from Wakamiya. He related more of the details; Cory was amazingly strong that Ken had thought, stronger than he was. She told him that she was doing ok; relatives were on their way to the house in Newton, Massachusetts. She thanked Ken for all he had done for Ninoy. He was touched she would say such a thing at a moment like that. Ken emphasized they still had no official confirmation that he was dead. She asked him to let her know of any new developments.

A few minutes later, the telephone rang again. It was an Army officer from the Fort Bonifacio Hospital. He said Ninoy was indeed there. Lupita shouted into the telephone repeatedly "Is he dead or alive?" Knowing the inevitable confirmation coming, the Army officer couldn't answer. The Aquino family's hopes were raised again. Lupita raced out the door to the hospital. Ken said that he would stay at the house and asked her to call him as soon as she confirmed anything at all. An anxious hour passed before Lupita finally relayed the message to Ken, who then called Cory again, confirming the inevitable. Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., was officially dead!
 
Chapter 16: Fallout from the 08.21.83 Incident
......"Immediately once Aquino was gunned down, international news media organizations began breaking into regular programming and reported on what just happened in Manila. And reported on new developments on the assassination.

ABC News correspondent Jim Laurie, who accompanied the former Philippine Senator on the flight to Manila, was among the first on the air reporting on ABC's 'This Week' while Sam Donaldson reported on the Aquino assassination during the weekend evening newscast of ABC News World News Tonight Sunday from the ABC News Washington DC Bureau Headquarters."
-Excerpt from "The Assassination in Manila that altered the Philippines."

......"upon learning about Senator Aquino's assassination, President Reagan held a closed-door meeting with members of the National Security Council which included Vice President Bush and Secretaries Shultz and Jackson. Shultz was asked by Reagan "Is there any rogue element involving anyone inside the Philippine government with regard to being involved in the assassination?"

Shultz was shocked "I'm surprised you've said that sir. But I am not sure if there's either some conspiracy nor rogue elements with involvement in the Aquino assassination." Although the Philippine government pledged to conduct a thorough investigation, Shultz told the President that he would be in contact with Philippine Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. Romulo............"
-Excerpt from "The Experienced Diplomat: George P. Shultz and His Times"


......"Just hours after Ninoy was killed, Corazon and her youngest daughter Kristina were going to have to be facing an onslaught of media interviews including answering lots of questions about Ninoy's legacy, his political career and role in shaping the fight of restoring democracy in the Philippines......

....For Cory, she was being pretty strong despite receiving much devastating news about her husband's assassination. She was basically the defacto leader of the opposition and it was only a matter of time before Cory would be called to leading the opposition against the Marcos dictatorship within the next few years......

She showed strong resolve, calm demeanor and doing surprisingly quite well during an exclusive interview by Sam Donaldson of ABC News......

However, Kristina, who was the youngest of the five Aquino children, was just 12 years old and she had to really grew up very quickly because everything inside the Aquino family was going to become extremely different and nothing was ever going to be the same. Life for the Aquino's was becoming quite strongly different......."
-Excerpt from "The Aquino Family's Backstory"
Spring 2002
 
Good Job @Sergeant Foley. Anything intriguing with the following cast of characters in this long TL ?
1.) Philippine President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.,
2.) US President Ronald Wilson Reagan
3.) US Defense Secretary Henry M. 'Scoop' Jackson
4.) French President Francois Mitterrand
5.) King Juan Carlos I & Queen Sofia of Spain
6.) Brazilian President Joao Figueriedo
7.) Uruguyan President General Gregorio Conrado Alvarez
8.) Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier
9.) Korean President Chun Doo-hwan
10.) Indonesian President Suharto
11.) Taiwanese President Chiang Ching-kuo
12.) King Bhumibol Adujlayeh of Thailand
13.) Empress Farah Pahlavi of Iran
14.) King Baudouin I of Belgium
15.) Queen Beatrix of Netherlands
16.) King Carl Gustav of Sweden
17.) Queen Margrethe II of Denmark
18.) King Olav V of Norway
 
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Good Job @Sergeant Foley. Anything intriguing with the following cast of characters in this long TL ?
1.) Philippine President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.,
2.) US President Ronald Wilson Reagan
3.) US Defense Secretary Henry M. 'Scoop' Jackson
4.) French President Francois Mitterrand
5.) King Juan Carlos I & Queen Sofia of Spain
6.) Brazilian President Joao Figueriedo
7.) Uruguyan President General Gregorio Conrado Alvarez
8.) Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier
9.) Korean President Chun Doo-hwan
10.) Indonesian President Suharto
11.) Taiwanese President Chiang Ching-kuo
12.) King Bhumibol Adujlayeh of Thailand
13.) Empress Farah Pahlavi of Iran
14.) King Baudouin I of Belgium
15.) Queen Beatrix of Netherlands
16.) King Carl Gustav of Sweden
17.) Queen Margrethe II of Denmark
18.) King Olav V of Norway
Glad you're enjoying "The American Republic" @49ersfootball. Now here's what I've got planned for the following in the upcoming chapters:

*๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญPhilippine President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.,: The plan is to have him die from kidney failure sometime around 13 March 1984 and succeeded by his wife, Philippine First Lady and Vice President Imelda Romualdez Marcos, who'll be facing growing brewing backlash which will be detailed in Chapter 21. Spoiler Alert: NOT tipping my hand on that one, but it's hinted Corazon Cojuangco Aquino becomes President.

*๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea President Chun Doo-hwan: With the assassination of then-ROK Prime Minister Roh Tae-woo, I plan on having Chun extending his stay in the Blue House longer and ensuring he'll remain President of the Republic of Korea until 25 February 1993.

*Empress Farah Pahlavi of Iran: Haven't decided what to do with her as of yet, but the plan is having her quietly abdicating the Iranian throne around 1991 and having her son, Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi being proclaimed as the new Shah of Iran.

*๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brazilian President Joao Figueriedo: The plan is having him serving out his six-year term and leaving office in 1985, which will be heavily detailed in Chapter 17.

*๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ Taiwanese President Chiang Ching-kuo: Still riding extremely high following his controversial military operation against the PRC during the Fall of 1982 by taking nearly half of the Mainland. He likely still dies in office on 13 January 1988 in this timeline like he did in real life and succeeded by Vice President Lee Teng-hui.

*๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Queen Margrethe II of Denmark: Still running the Kingdom of Denmark and likely abdicating from the Danish throne on 14 January 2024; Succeeded by her oldest son, Crown Prince Frederik, who will likely become King Frederik X.

*๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ King Bhumibol Adujlayeh of Thailand: Haven't gotten to him yet. He'll be a factor somewhere around either Chapter 18 or 19.

*๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Uruguayan President General Gregorio Conrado Alvarez: Upping the ante even further against the opposition by crushing descent. He'll be mentioned in Chapter 18 at some point.

*๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier: Likely being factored in Chapter 19.

*๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Indonesian President Suharto: He was mentioned in the earlier chapters of this timeline during the Rockefeller administration. He'll be a huge key player sometime around Chapter 18.

*๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท French President Francois Mitterrand: Skillfully keeping his cancer a super secret from the public. Big question is whether he'll make it to 14 years in office? Stay tuned.

*๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia: They were somewhat mentioned in the earlier chapters of this timeline back in the Fall of 1975, but they'll be focused more heavily on Chapter 19.

*๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช King Baudouin I of Belgium: Since I butterflied away the heartbreaking miscarriages and decided to give King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola lots of kids, I was busy working on Baudouin this week during the recent winter freeze storm here in the Lone Star State, which will be put together in Chapter 20.

*๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช King Carl Gustav Gustav of Sweden: Still running the Swedish Royal Family as the King of the Kingdom of Sweden. As of today, he's still kicking and at some point, his oldest daughter, Crown Princess Ingrid will likely become Queen of Sweden in the future. Not sure when Carl Gustav kicks it......

*๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด King Olav V of Norway: He'll be factored in the later chapters of The American Republic. Haven't done research on him yet.

*๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ US President Ronald Wilson Reagan: Likely to be assassinated in Chapter 17 during his State Visit to the Republic of Korea on 13 November 1983. Keep an eye on it because this will have huge devastating ramifications as the Tippancanoe Curse will strike again!

*๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ US Defense Secretary Henry Marion Jackson: Likely to die in office on 1 September 1983 in the early stages of Chapter 17.
 
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Chapter 16: National and International Highlights (Summer 1983: XXVI)
SPORTS: LOUISVILLE REDBIRDS MAKES HISTORIC MARK OF FANS
*Thursday, August 25, 1983: The Louisville Redbirds (Triple A MLB Team) made history, breaking a record mark of fans: 1 million.

$10 BILLION GRAIN PACT SIGNED BETWEEN UNITED STATES AND SOVIET UNION
The United States and the Soviet Union signed a $10 billion pact in agricultural grains between the world's two major nuclear superpowers.

FLOODS DESTROY THE TOWN OF BILBAO, SPAIN
*Friday, August 26, 1983: Because of heavy rains, which caused major flooding damages in the town of Bilbao, Spain including several surrounding areas; the death toll from the flooding consisted of 44 people and also costed millions of major damages.

HAITI ADOPTING NEW CONSTITUTION
*Saturday, August 27, 1983: Staving off attempts at revolution against his government, Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier had the Haitian Parliament put together a new constitution together in the Caribbean nation. It was approved by majority of the voters and adopted by the Parliament. It remains to be seen whether these efforts can stave off grumbling demonstrations against the Duvalier administration.

NUCLEAR TEST PERFORMED BY THE UNITED STATES
The United States successfully performed another nuclear test at a top secret undisclosed location. Details and developments of the successful nuclear test remain unknown and are strongly classified.

BEGIN RESIGNS AS ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER
*Sunday, August 28, 1983: Facing major revolts inside the Knesset including demonstrations from opposition groups as well as backlash over some of his handling on major foreign policy initiatives, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin announced he was resigning from the Prime Ministership effective immediately.

ENTERTAINMENT: "MAME" MUSICAL CLOSES
The revival of Jerry Herman's musical "Mame" which starred the legendary Angela Lansbury, closed at the George Gershwin Theater in New York City, New York State following 41 performances.

DESPITE HESITANCE, DRAFT BABBIT MOVEMENT ESCALATES
*Monday, August 29, 1983: Months following a Democratic-affiliated group led by US Rep.
Morris Udall (D-AZ 02nd) launched a "Draft Babbitt" campaign in convincing Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt to run for the Presidency in 1984, the movement has gained steam over June and July, with neither United States Senators Alan Cranston (D-CA) and John Glenn (D-OH) impressing enough to the voters in the primary States so far and with incumbent President Ronald Reagan's approval ratings slipping downward throughout the Spring and Summer of 1983, with some slight upward ticks. Hundreds of state legislators in all 51 States including two dozen Democratic congressmen joined forces and formally endorsed a potential Babbitt candidacy. They're joined by several former Johnson administration officials from all ranks including all ranks. A number of business leaders and unions also urged Governor Babbitt to consider a campaign for the White House after previously declining to jump in back in 1980 when he deferred to then-New York State Governor Hugh L. Carey, who won the nomination only to get trounced by President Reagan in a resounding landslide that year. Even a group of Carey campaign staffers admitted the two-term Arizona Governor might have the best chance of any Democrat to regain the White House for the first time since 1964.

Babbitt, who is in the midst of his second full four-year term which began on 4 January 1983, himself said back earlier in the Spring of 1983 he was in the middle of a heavy-packed legislative session with getting major priorities passed by both chambers of the Arizona State Legislature. According to Congressman Udall, the popular Democratic Governor promised him to reconsider his stance following consultations with his family and friends. However, while he would start out as one of the main contenders for the 1984 Democratic Party presidential nomination, some liberal Democrats were skeptical of the moderate Babbitt. They also pointed out the fact that no Democrat had won Arizona since 1948 and that the Grand Canyon State was considered as a staunch conservative Republican stronghold, plus they viewed a Babbitt nomination as code for political suicide against the popular Republican incumbent President in a hypothetical match-up next year. Some progressives also feared Babbitt jumping in the race would undermine the campaign of former US Ambassador to Canada
Walter Mondale, who announced his campaign for the Presidency on 3 November 1982.

NASA SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION: CHALLENGER 3 LAUNCHES
*Tuesday, August 30, 1983: The 8th NASA Space Shuttle Mission: Challenger 3 officially launched for their 6-day excursion mission.

BLUFORD MAKES HISTORY AS FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN ASTRONAUT IN SPACE
United States Air Force Colonel Guion Bluford made history becoming the first African American in space, which took place during his first mission STS-8 which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Merritt Island, Florida.

ZAKARIAN CROWNED AS FIRST MISS TEEN USA 1983

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Ruth Elizabeth Zakarian of Amsterdam, New York State, aged 17 is crowned as the first Miss Teen USA 1983 at the Lakeland Civic Center in Lakeland, Florida.



FORMER PHILIPPINE SENATOR, OPPOSITION LEADER BENIGNO AQUINO, JR., LAID TO REST AFTER LARGE FUNERAL SERVICE IN SUBURBAN QUEZON CITY
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*Wednesday, August 31, 1983: Funeral Mass for the late former Philippine Senator and opposition leader Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr., was held at the Church of Santo Domingo in suburban Quezon City, Philippines. It was officiated by Jaime Cardinal Sin, who delivered the eulogy, who said the late Senator Aquino "personified Filipino courage in the face of oppression." The Funeral Mass began at 8:00 AM PHST in the morning.

The late former Philippine Senator's funeral was considered to be one of the largest in Philippine history. Several opposition groups including rank-and-file individuals such as former Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal, who served as the 9th President of the Philippines from 30 December 1961 to 30 December 1965, called for the resignation of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Macapagal said that Marcos' popularity and strong authority is waning very fast and also charged the circumstances and ramifications of Senator Aquino's assassination from 21 August 1983, while the opposition leader was being guarded by government soldiers, couldn't be accepted anymore.

Following the funeral services at the Church of Santo Domingo, Senator Aquino's flag-draped casket was placed atop a flatbed truck for the slow 10-hour procession all the way to the Manila Memorial Park in Paranaque City. During the long funeral procession, crowds greeted the flatbed truck with loud chants "Ninoy! Ninoy! Ninoy!" Others displayed placards such as "Marcos, the great liar" and "Who murdered my hero?". The Associated Press reported that Philippine law enforcement agencies were deployed along with 900 special troops by the Philippine government upon learning about youths smashing store windows and traffic lights. Later that evening, Senator Aquino was finally entombed at the Manila Memorial Park in Paranaque City, Philippines. Among those in attendance at the services were the Ambassadors of the United States, France, Australia, Japan, Italy including countless foreign dignitaries.

 
Chapter 17: Terror in the Skies
Chapter 17: Shoot and Kill!
Thursday, 1 September 1983


Korean Airlines Flight 007 was in the last leg of their flight from New York City, New York State heading to Seoul, Republic of Korea (the planned destination), which included a stopover in Anchorage, Alaska. While approaching the final part of the destination, suddenly deviated from its original planned route and accidentally flew through Soviet prohibited airspace around the same time during an American aerial reconnaissance mission. To the Soviets, they viewed the unidentified aircraft as an intruding US spy aircraft, and quickly shot it down with air-to-air missiles, following the firing of two warning shots which weren't even seen by the pilots flying Korean Airlines Flight 007.

Following the devastating damage via Soviet air-to-air missiles, Korean Airlines Flight 007 eventually crashed into the sea near Moneron Island: west of Sakhalin in the Sea of Japan, killing all 269 people including passengers and crew-members aboard instantly. Among those killed in the plane crash was the flamboyant US Rep.
Larry McDonald (D-GA 07th), who was invited to the Republic of Korea to attend the 30th anniversary of the ROKUS Mutual Defense Treaty with United States Senators Jesse Helms (R-NC) and Steve Symms (R-ID) including US Rep. Carroll Hubbard (D-KY 01st). Hubbard gave up on the trip altogether while Helms' flight was delayed, saving their lives. McDonald insisted on flying on Korean Airlines because of their lowest fares and was cheaper.

Upon learning of the horrific plane crash, the United States quickly altered tracking procedures for aircraft departing from Alaska and President
Ronald Reagan issued a directive making the American satellite-based radio navigation Global Positioning System (GPS) freely available for civilian use, once sufficiently developed. Immediately following the controversial shootdown, the Republic of Korea designated the United States and Japan as search-and-salvage agents, thereby making it illegal for the Soviets in salvaging the aircraft themselves; The horrific incident also caused international horror and increased disastrous tensions between the two major nuclear superpowers in the midst of the Cold War. American officials such as US Defense Secretary Henry M. Jackson immediately blasted the Soviets, whom Jackson personally held responsible for shooting down the Korean Airlines Flight 007 and President Reagan decried it as "an act of barbarism". American authorities and conservative politicians skillfully used the 09.01.83 Incident in successfully stirring anti-Soviet sentiment across the entire world.

Following the press conference in Everett, Washington, Secretary Jackson felt tired and worn out when he grabbed his arm. One of his security detail agents asked "Everything ok, Mr. Secretary?" Jackson replied "Just feel a little bit tired, just take me to the residence, so I can get some sleep." Inside the Jackson residence, Mrs. Helen Eugenia Hardin Jackson, his wife of 22 years, found her husband unconscious and called 911. Several hours later, Henry Martin Jackson was pronounced dead at the Providence Hospital in Everett, which was only blocks from his residence. An era ended!
 
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Chapter 17: International and National Headlines (Fall 1983: I)
BREAKING NEWS ALERT: PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN SANCTIONS MOSCOW; CLOSES AMERICAN AIR SPACE FOR SOVIET AIRLINES
*Tuesday, September 6, 1983: Following the Korean Airlines Flight 007 crash, President Ronald Reagan and members of his administration blasted the Soviet Union in one of the starkest terms, the President, on September 6, announced the closure of American air space for Soviet civilian planes effective immediately. "The tragedy of September 1st has had devastating cost to the families of those lost including international fallout from across the world. The Soviets will regret that they did this and for these barbaric actions, there will be severe and devastating consequences in response," Reagan said when addressing reporters during a White House briefing in the Old Executive Office Building.

A number of lawmakers led by United States Senator
Jesse Helms (R-NC) had been calling on Reagan to close the US airspace for any Soviet airplanes and also demanded additional sanctions. The administration followed through by imposing additional sanctions on the Soviet Union including cutting off economic trade relations with Moscow altogether. US Secretary of State George P. Shultz was asked what specific retaliation will the United States have in response to the 09.01.83 Incident, Shultz declined to answer but said there will be response at the appropriate time at the appropriate choosing.

FUNERAL SERVICES HELD FOR THE LATE US DEFENSE SECRETARY
HENRY M. JACKSON

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*Wednesday, September 7, 1983: Following a public viewing at the Washington National Cathedral during the week of September 5th-6th, Funeral Services were held for the late US Secretary of Defense Henry M. Jackson at the First Presbyterian Church in Everett, Washington. Among those in attendance: US Vice President George HW Bush; US Deputy Defense Secretary and acting Defense Secretary Capsar Weinberger; United States Senators Strom Thurmond (R-SC); Barry Goldwater (R-AZ); Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY St); Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA); Juan H. Cintron Garcia (D-PR); Lloyd Bentsen (D-TX); Charles G. Mathias, Jr., (R-MD); US Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker (R-TN); US Senate Minority Leader Robert Byrd (D-WV); former US Vice President Edward W. Brooke, III; former United States Senator Warren G. Magnuson (D-WA St); US Defense Secretary John G. Tower; Washington Governor John Spellman including countless other dignitaries. Following the services, Scoop was laid to rest with full military honors at the Evergreen Cemetery in Everett, Washington.
 
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Chapter 17: International and National Headlines (Fall 1983: II)
RESTORING AMERICAN CHARACTER SPEECH FROM ARIZONA GOVERNOR BRUCE BABBITT FUELS SPECULATION
*Monday, September 19, 1983: Following weeks and months of political intrigue and speculation, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt appeared before a packed crowd inside the Gammage Auditorium on the campus of Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona on the afternoon of September 19th. Before an audience of 3,673 people in attendance, the Grand Canyon State's 16th Governor delivered one of the most hard-hitting speeches ever in his Governorship: "Under the current administration over the last three years, we've seen unemployment rising to the highest levels since the Great Depression. Reaganomics hasn't trickled down like it was promoted and it definitely hasn't gotten to millions of Americans, who are living paycheck to paycheck in their jobs. Unfortunately, we've witnessed a large number of setbacks in countless areas in the domestic areas. A so-called Reaganomics economics plan which was originally pushed to improve our national economy, yet only revealed to have a fantasy of trickle-down economics. And especially tagged Voodoo Economics," Governor Babbitt said, "I believe that it is the time to restoring American Greatness both here at home and also abroad on the international front. In a time of international turmoil with the recent events, the federal government needs to go back to the basic frameworks for lasting economic growth long-term instead of a trickle-down economy with no success and a staggering bureaucracy which is getting more bloated with huge deficits and in the name of national security, Soviet hunger for international dominance must be met with American strength and determination."

It's unknown whether Babbitt is planning another political campaign, but in light of ongoing efforts of pursuing more than Arizona state government, political observers began shifting their previous skeptical tones in the press. The Arizona Republic wrote: "While it looked like a non-starter that Governor Babbitt would take the plunge on a national campaign, it's not only gaining traction among Democrats and some disaffected Republicans, Babbitt himself might've second thoughts of about not taking the earlier plunge in 1980. If he were to take the plunge and run in 1984, the Governor could see his hypotheticalcampaign end in an embarrassing defeat, or pull off one of the most shocking upsets in the history of the American Republic."
 

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