Alternate History 🇺🇸 November 2, 1976: President Nelson Rockefeller wins election to full 4-year term and the aftermath

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Chapter 19: The Shah Wiki-esque Infobox New
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
King of Kings
Light of the Aryans

Format portrait (1973)

Reign 16 September 1941-12 March 1979
Coronation 26 October 1967
Predecessor Reza Shah
Successor Farah Diba (Regent/Queen of Iran)

******Personal Details******
26 October 1919
Tehran, Sublime State of Persia
Died 12 March 1979 (aged 59)
Cairo, Egypt
Resting place Al-Rifa'i Mosque
Cairo, Egypt

Spouse Princess Fawiza of Egypt
(m. 1939; div. 1948)
Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary
(m. 1951; div. 1958)
Farah Diba
(m. 1959)

Issue Princess Shahnaz
Shah Reza Pahlavi
Princess Farahnaz
Prince Ali Reza
Princess Leila

Alma mater Institut Le Rosey
Madrasa Nezam

House Pahlavi
Father Reza Shah
Mother Tadj ol-Molouk
Religion Twelver Shi-ism
******Military Service******
Branch/Service Imperial Iranian Army
Years of service
Rank Marshal
Marshal of the Imperial Iranian Navy
Marshal of the Imperial Iranian Air Force
Commands Army's Inspection Department
Chapter 19: Personal PoV's (Fall 1984: Fallout of the Bush Landslide) New
......"following the shocking and explosive assassinations of Thatcher and Queen Elizabeth II, Pope John Paul II of 1982 and Benigno Aquino, Jr., of 1983; the deadly Falklands War of 1982 and the Invasion of the Mainland of 1982 between China and Taiwan, which the Taiwanese successfully and skillfully won the war by dividing the Mainland into three different countries in some DMZ-esque version, then came the shocking Reagan assassination on November 13, 1983 in Seoul, South Korea, which had devastating ramifications for American politics heading into the heart of the 1980s and the countless international chaotic incidents such as the Ceausescu overthrow and publicly televised executions, the mysterious kidnapping of Videla in the Argentine Republic, resulting in seeing President Bush resoundingly winning reelection to his first full term in a landslide victory of 19 percentage points with 59 percent of the nationwide vote, winning 483 electoral votes and carrying 45 out of 51 States over Governor Babbitt, who somehow, managed to flip the following Southern States Blue: Kentucky, Georgia, North Carolina and West Virginia, while winning Minnesota and his home State of Arizona including the District of Columbia. Republicans held onto their majority in the United States Senate despite losing Senate seats in Tennessee, Iowa, Illinois and Puerto Rico: although Republicans flipped Kentucky and Texas; the Democrats held onto their majority in the House of Representatives despite losing 28 out of 37 House seats they had flipped in 1982. 1985 was bound to get more intriguing and politically testing in terms of battling over budgeting priorities between the White House and the divided Congress. It was up to Bush, who now had a mandate to heavily focus on foreign policy and international affairs, which was going to make or break his first full term as President. Because 1988 was going to be coming in fast and lots of political jockeying was going to make the Bush administration's life quite difficult.

......There was talk about Senator Dole and Congressman Kemp both thinking about launching primary challenges to President Bush in 1988, while the Democrats were struggling with facing the aftermath of the fourth consecutive massive landslide defeat in a row: 1972, 1976, 1980 and 1984. They needed to go moderate fast....."
-Excerpt from The Chaotic and Deadly Chalice That Changed America since 1963.
Chapter 19: The Democratic Party Soul Searching (Fall 1984) New
......"the Democratic Party's civil war during Bush's two full terms was getting more uglier, but it was quite better off by handling and hashing out these rivalries then, while we had control of the House of Representatives, the Republicans still had control of the United States Senate, which meant President Bush was going to get more judges confirmed in the judiciary branch. I think the frustration of losing five consecutive presidential elections in a row: 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980 and 1984: with Humphrey losing a heartbreak in 68, yet we got the damn doors blown completely off by the jackass crook (Nixon) in '72. Then Watergate exploded which forced Nixon's resignation two years later and we got Jerry Ford, who's a nice guy, who lost popularity once he pardoned Nixon less than a month after becoming the 38th President. It caused a backlash in the 1974 Midterms and the economy went into the full crapper of SHIT in 1975. Next thing we know, Ford gets assassinated by some Charlie Manson nutjob and we ended up with Rockefeller as the 39th President, who turned out to be quite popular and ended up crushing Wallace in a massive landslide in 1976......

......Before we knew it, Rockefeller was planning on seeking reelection for 1980 and potentially 1984 following the controversial American Government Stability Act was approved by Congress, which abolished term limits on the Presidency, it meant he could've been the longest-serving President for 13 years had Rocky not died of a heart attack late in the evening of January 26, 1979. Holton ascended to the Presidency as the 40th President and like Rocky, held sky-high approval ratings, but didn't seek reelection to his first full term in 1980 due to Reagan aggressively running...... We thought we had Reagan on the ropes in the early part of the campaign once Governor Carey won the Democratic Party presidential nomination. And for awhile, it was neck-and-neck in 1980 between the two Governors.......

However, I never saw one conniving, dirty political trick coming in the name of the controversial Lee Atwater, who leaked out damaging and disturbing information about Evangeline Gouletas-Carey's personal life including other dirty tricks Atwater and the Reagan campaign had pulled. I KNEW better because Reagan played fucking dirty. Next thing we knew, Reagan won in a resounding landslide of 22 percentage points with 57 percent of the nationwide vote and carried 45 out of 51 States in 1980.

Some of us assumed after the 1982 Midterms that Reagan wasn't going to seek reelection, but he announced his reelection campaign. His approval ratings were on the upswing in the Fall of 1983....... when the entire world was shell-shocked following Reagan's horrific assassination in Seoul, South Korea on November 13, 1983 and we saw George Herbert Walker Bush ascending to the Presidency as the 42nd President of the United States. I knew right then, that we were on course of losing in a resounding landslide again, this time to a Connecticut-born, New England clam-chowder talking diplomat from Texas, who had the benefit of incumbency and overwhelming popularity following the successful Operation Bootstick, which caused the downfall of the North Korean communist dictatorship and the eventual reunification of the Korean Peninsula or some version of it under Seoul's control.

......I was scared that Bush was going to sweep all 51 States in 1984. Yet, there was some heart warming moments, that Governor Babbitt did manage to work hard in the South by flipping Kentucky (Collins' backyard), Georgia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. 1988 was a must win for us and we badly tried to get some of the up-and-coming Democrats to consider running against President Bush in '88: Cuomo and White both turned it down and focused on running their respective States of New York State and Texas. Clinton was thinking about '88 and there was talk of incoming Senator Gore being hyped up as a candidate......

Dukakis had big skeletons coming out of the political closet: that fucking prison furlough program in Massachusetts was causing many Democrats to get scared of being tagged by Republicans as "Soft On Crime" and weak on public safety, etc., I knew that we had to do more extensive discussions on how to move the Democratic Party forward......"
-United States Senator
Juan H. Cintron Garcia (D-PR)
Exclusive Interview: "How the Democrats Got Their Groove Back" Autobiography
28 May 1999
Chapter 19: Soul Searching of the Democrats (Fall 1984) New
......"The prospect of 20+ years out of the White House was frustrating. It was driving us crazy: Nixon, Ford, Rockefeller, Holton, Reagan and now Bush. This was unheard of since the 1920s and early 1930s: Harding, Coolidge and Hoover. It was frustrating and getting annoying of losing election after election, the last four in landslides: 1972, 1976, 1980 and 1984. People just couldn't fathom of being completely helpless. I really think what was causing us problems, were those on the progressive and liberal side of the party, who were causing many voters to go heavily for Bush and the Republicans in large numbers based on the resounding landslide Bush got in '84: I believed that we needed to reassess and consider potential options for '88......"
-Excerpt from United States Senator
Gary Hart (D-CO)
"My American Life"

......"with everything that happened on Election Night, even as early as Inauguration, some people were hyping up "Babbitt 88" signs, pushing for a rematch between Babbitt and Bush. Bruce went back to Phoenix and continued serving out his second full term as Arizona Governor, some wanted him to consider running for the United States Senate or even seeking reelection to a third full four-year term to the Governorship in 1986. However, I noticed that based on my conversations with Bruce and Harriet, it seeemed like Bruce was getting ready to move on from the Governorship and temporarily leave politics for a short while. Of course, thankfully for Arizona and the American body politc, he found a new path where he could contribute and use his fame and cachet within the Democratic Party for some good. Being tagged as the third consecutive Governor losing a presidential election in a landslide caused some inside the party to say: He had his shot at the Presidency, was their stance, and honestly, they were right. Sometimes, I wonder if he would've won reelection to a third full term as Governor in 1986 because the nutjob, who succeeded him, was a fucking idiot and a complete disaster and an embarrassment to the Grand Canyon State."
-Former US Rep.
Morris Udall (D-AZ 02nd)
"Remembering Campaign 84: Historical Symposium on the 1984 Presidential Election."

......"there was talk about lobbying me to seek reelection as Governor in 1986, because they wanted stability. We held the Governorship for what would be 12 years of Democratic Governors. I had been a popular Democratic Governor of a staunch conservative Red State in the Southwest, who became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in what some thought was a hopeless presidential election in 1984. I was also asked if I would consider seeking the Presidency again in 1988, but I just didn't have the fire in the political belly and needed a break on a temporary basis. Harriet and I discussed the political options for our family and for the people of Arizona and concluded, that family time had to come first. Although, I would've easily won reelection for a third full term as Governor, but thought Arizonans wanted new blood."
-US Secretary of the Interior
Bruce Babbitt
Exclusive Interview with the Washington Post (Summer 1993)
Chapter 19: Kirkpatrick OUT! (Fall 1984) New
-Seattle Times Headline

......"with a resounding landslide victory including a mandate to moving America forward, this year, President Bush elected to give one of the Cabinet officials the big pink slip as he's heading into his first full term as the 42nd President of the United States------Jean Kirkpatrick, Ambassador to the United Nations since 1981 under President Ronald Reagan (1981-1983) and current President George H.W. Bush and also one of the most flamboyant and controversial Cabinet members particularly on foreign policy and national security issues, has been relieved of her duties in the aftermath of the 1984 presidential election. Though the move was expected, the announcement over the weekend caught even some administration insiders off guard......"
-The Seattle Times: 11 December 1984.

......"abruptly firing Jean had Jim (Baker) written all over it. The knives had been out for quite awhile and it was well known that George particularly wasn't thrilled nor a fan of keeping her at the United Nations from the second he ascended to the Presidency following Reagan's assassination. Still, it was a sudden and harsh move. Bush insiders had been lobbying for Jim to get the job himself, but George needed him to stay as White House Chief of Staff and there was speculation swirling around about David (Rockefeller) leaning toward stepping down as Secretary of the Treasury. By the end of the week, Bush announced he was tapping Ann Armstrong to serve as the next Ambassador to the United Nations. It was the right move, and practically it took serious personal lobbying from former Defense Secretary John Tower. It became obvious to everyone that foreign policy and international affairs were going to be the hallmark priorities of the Bush administration going forward. One factor that became really important in the first full term was how much power and influence George distributed to his Cabinet Secretaries, as well: personal decisions were being routed through them first. The upcoming four years were going to be quite defining for sure."
-Former Vice President
Howard Baker
US Ambassador to Japan
Fall 2001 Exclusive Interview
Chapter 19: Situation in Colombia escalating again (Fall 1984) New

*Thursday, 13 December 1984: At the White House and following consultations with key players of his administration and members of Congress, President George HW Bush personally gave a press conference:

President Bush: "Good afternoon Ladies and Gentlemen, my fellow Americans: With regard to the recent ongoing developments in Colombia, I want to specifically outline the policies of my administration upon which I have decided after careful consideration.

Looking at the situation that has been emerging in Colombia over the past several months, on behalf of the United States of America, I call for a government of national unity in Colombia. This requires participation of all major political forces, who are enraged in one form or another in this conflict. It is becoming more obvious that the leftist government led by President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero has lost its ability to effectively govern. On the other hand, we do not have a succeeding government which is capable of taking over the nation's business or has enough support. The United States government, in the interest of stability in the Western Hemisphere, regards it as essential that the explosive situation currently exists gets resolved peacefully. A potential bloody coup or a civil war must be avoided to prevent political turmoil and the loss of innocent lives. The most recent development made it inevitable that a government of national unity is being formed that is able to garner enough support among the people of Colombia.

I hereby offer all political players in Colombia to send a delegation led by Secretary of State George P. Shultz to Colombia for talks to forming a national unity government. I also phoned with President General Oscar Robles of Mexico, who is ready to send diplomats to Colombia, as Mexico has vital interest in stability on the American continents as well. Now, I want to conclude by expressing my hope that this urgent situation can be resolved peacefully. Thank you very much."

Sam Donaldson (ABC News): "Mr. President, does this mean President Quintero has to go?"

President Bush: "That question has to be determined by the people of Colombia and their representatives. It is no secret that we have strong, vast differences of opinion with President Quintero, but his future is not ours to decide. Our main goal is stability and the safety of American citizens in Colombia, including protection of US businesses from confiscation, as President Quintero has been doing since he came to office in 1977 so far. Thank you very much once again."

It remained to be seen whether the situation in Colombia would end peacefully or have a full-scale explosion of non-stop chaos.
Chapter 19: Personal PoV's (Fall 1984) New
......"the situation in Colombia was escalating even more. Conservative elements of the Colombian Armed Forces were scheming and plotting to remove Quintero from the Presidency altogether.

All of Colombia was watching including a wealthy druglord, who was wondering if his illegal business ventures would get exposed. He had the protection of Quintero's regime for the past seven years.

Nobody knew what to expect with the brewing political and military escalations exploding......"
-Except from "The Coup That Lit The Flames of Colombia".
Chapter 19: Chaos in Colombia New

*Friday, 14 December-Monday, 17 December 1984: Before Colombian President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero could officially respond to the letter from US President George HW Bush, the situation inside Colombia got completely out of control: Military leaders under the command of General William Najera decided to oust the flamboyant leftist President with aggressive force and started an offensive against the Presidential Palace, Casa de Narino. "What the fuck is going on over there. The last damn thing we need, these ambitious, obsessive power-hungry bastard generals!" an angry President Bush reportedly said to US Ambassador to Colombia Lewis Arthur Tambs when Bush learned about the situation. Following December 15th, complete chaos broke out; confusing and contradicting news came out of Colombia. On December 16th, Colombian Vice President Brigadier General Victor Jennings, who was seen as a potential replacement for Quintero in the 1990 elections, was fatally shot and killed by pro-Najera supporting officers. Although many of his supporters were engaged in-often violent protests, the situation calmed down by December 17th, when Quintero urged workers to fight for the leftist cause. Afterwards, he disappeared and even American intelligence was unable to say what happened to him. American journalists wrote, he might've been killed or more likely, hid somewhere.

While the Bush administration seemed extremely worried about the situation potentially spilling over in the Americas, United States Senator
Howell Heflin (D-AL), was the first on Capitol Hill to call for US intervention to restoring public order amongst a coalition of different countries. US Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger immediately rejected such "premature actions".


On December 18th, Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez confirmed that former Colombian President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero went into Spanish exile. It was unclear whether he planned to return and what would happen to his supporters and government officials in Colombia.

The next day, Army General William Najera was inaugurated as the 26th President of Colombia and during his Inaugural Address, Najera issued a full-scale nationwide curfew to further crack down on protests. President Bush welcomed the move, but strongly emphasized the need for a quick democratic legitimation for any new government.


*Friday, 20 December 1984: The White House announced a delegation led by US Secretary of State
George P. Shultz is heading to Colombia for political consultations and resolving the crisis. The US delegation is also joined by United States Senators Mark Hatfield (R-OR) and Juan H. Cintron Garcia (D-PR), with whom the President consulted recently. "I sincerely hope we can play a productive role here," Senator Cintron Garcia commented upon his departure. Both Senators are known for more dowish foreign policy.

Once arriving in Bogota, talks between Colombian officials, the US delegation, joined by a group of Mexican and Chilean diplomats, begun and lasted for three days. First, it seemed as the negotiations would fail since Quintero's supporters and his Regional Federation Party refused to participate altogether. From his exile in Spain, Quintero accused the Bush administration of a sanctioning a military coup, saying President Bush ordered his ouster. The White House responded by rejecting these claims and stated Quintero put his own country in chaos. Nevertheless, on December 23rd, Secretary Shultz was able to present an agreement with President Najera and the center/right democratic opposition: A regular election was scheduled to take place on 25 May 1986 (Najera confirmed he intends to seek reelection to a full four-year term in his own right) to legitimate his new government. Both the Colombian National Congress, where the staunch conservatives to Quintero hold supermajorities, and a new President would be elected under the agreement. Immediately afterwards, the Regional Federation Party called upon their supporters to boycott the new elections. In Spain, Quintero stated such an election would be considered illegitimate and influenced by Chile, Mexico and the United States. Nevertheless, the situation in Colombia itself further calmed down by Christmas, December 25th, despite some large demonstrations by members of the Regional Federation Party against Shultz's visit.

When he returned home, Secretary Shultz and the congressional delegation were praised for their leadership. President Bush thanked them as well as the Mexican and Chilean governments for their cooperation. At least for the moment, the crisis in Colombia was somewhat resolved, as a flamboyant and controversial leftist President was removed from office after seven chaotic years in office and the Center/Right political parties had a decent chance to maintaining power in Colombia, with polling surveys showing Najera likely winning reelection in two years, causing the South American nation to become a more reliable partner for the United States as President Bush was preparing for a great speech on Latin America by early next year.

Gallup Polling Surveys: 30 December 1984
George HW Bush Job Approval Rating
Approve: 75%
Disapprove: 19%

After a full year in office, President Bush remains at a high popularity level. Americans gave him credit for his successful handling of foreign policy incidents in particular.
Chapter 19: Scandal in Hong Kong New
......"in order to let the government be run efficiently and to maintain the dignity of the Commonwealth of Hong Kong, I will be announcing my resignation from the office of Prime Minister and from my seat in the Hong Konger Parliament. Upon the request of Chancellor Jiang, the resignation from the Prime Ministership will become effective on December 17th. As I leave public life, I personally want to people apologize to the Hong Konger people for failing to live up to the standards that you have entrusted to me and the basic duties of public service......."
_Lei Dang
Resignation Speech as Prime Minister of Hong Kong
10 December 1984

"I have always wondered about the timing of the shocking expose of having sex with prostitutes and whether this was instigated from the assistance of foreign countries. I'm not saying the Bush administration was involved, or that the CIA was involved in leaking the expose, I just wonder, sometimes. Some people do more than wonder, that's been the case for almost twenty years. It's an article of faith for some that Bush wanted Dang out of office. Me, I just wonder."
-Lawrence Kumelez
Former Prime Minister of Hong Kong
"Downfall of a Prime Minister and the Ramifications for Hong Kong" Exclusive Special.
Chapter 19: Fallout from the Coup in Colombia New
......"The Coup in Colombia had huge ramifications inside the Americas. One of the surprise developments in Latin America because there had been some rumblings about ousting Quintero from the Presidency altogether after seven chaotic years in office.

......Leftists declared Quintero an icon to the leftist cause and launch a defacto war against the conservative patriarchy and in particular, blasted foreign interference; Analysts mentioned similar developments exploding in other countries such as Costa Rica, Bolivia to name a few.

......The Bush administration's foreign policy test in Colombia was escalating even more despite Najera taking over the Presidency by force. Coming off of a landslide victory, Bush insiders were worried about leftist dictators Noriega of Panama and Ortega of Nicaragua including Castro of Cuba were conniving with the Soviet Union in mysterious joint military exercises. President Bush's second inauguration was about to occur on January 20, 1985, but Colombia was about to become a potential Bay of Pigs 2.0 and it was only a matter of time before that would engulf Bush's first full term in office.

......considering that American military personnel troops were stationed at the Panama Canal, many foreign policy analysts worried about the possibility of angry triggered leftists forming paramilitary groups to launch an explosive war.

......Following the chaotic coup against Jenkins in Suriname, many neighboring countries such as Brazil aggressively closed their borders to Suriname because of the ugly explosive situation down there. While everyone was watching the situation in Colombia, there was some rumblings and talks of potential revolt in Mexico......"
-Excerpts from "The Coup in Colombia: Seymour Quintero and the Conspiracy to Take Down His Presidency".

......"My message to the Colombian people is: Keep fighting for the Republic of Colombia and NEVER give up your basic values and for what's right. I might not be your President, but I will be proven correct by the history books decades from now."
-Former Colombian President Seymour Quintero.
Televised interview from ETV.
27 December 1984
Chapter 19: Najera's Craziness in Colombia New
Fallout from the Coup in Colombia
Friday, 27 December 1984

Colombia had been among one of the most stable and democratic South American countries for quite awhile, and for the staunchly conservative American right-wing, seeing Colombia falling to the hands of a leftist in Seymour Quintero in the Spring of 1977, who ultimately won full four-year terms as President in 1978 and 1982, pursuing controversial foreign policy initiatives by courting Cuba, the Soviet Union, Romania, etc., it had been a tremendous blow that had in their viewpoint, required and warranted intervention from the CIA.

While the extent of the CIA's role indirectly aiding the coup that brought the right-wing conservative William Najera to the Presidency is a matter of debate------Langley seemed to have attached themselves to an active effort and provided assurances, more than anything else------one thing that has been clear was obvious open, overt American economic pressures from the White House and Treasury itself helped drive Colombia into a deep economic hole. Upon coming to power, Najera's penchant thirst for bloodthirsty violence and brutal force that left thousands dead and imprisoned had been blatantly ignored and overlooked thanks to Najera's staunch pro-American and pro-Western stances and policies, and because of his tacit acceptance of being the playground for an ultra-Libertarian, for free-market economics courtesy of the Chicago Boys.

Due to the chaotic economic recession, Colombia's economy dipped into a deep, hard depression, exacerbated by the economic pressures put upon the South American country in the 1977-1984 shadow defacto trade war pursued by the Rockefeller, Holton, Reagan and Bush administrations against the leftist government of then-Colombian President Lieutenant General Seymour Quintero. The Chicago Boys were brought in by Najera to jump-starting the Colombian economy as his own personal popularity badly sagged amongst Colombians and internal dissent growing, not from those he dismissed as Marxist agitators but even a great number of Reform Federation Liberals and other centrist and center/right figures, who were proud of Colombia's long democratic traditions and were appalled by Najera's sadist behavior.

The Chicago Boys went to work, among them Minister of Public Works Alberto Gomez; Minister of Labour Vincent Guillermo Lopez and Minister of Finance Jose Delgado. These men collaborated on what became known as the "Shock Doctrine" in which Colombia would pursue an aggressive program of free-market economics including massive privatizations; massive gutting of state services and spending in an unprecedented move of austerity: the suspension of tariffs and emerging of free trade agreements and an insulation from public opposition to the acute short-term economic pain these policies were anticipated to curbing through the totalitarian regime of Najera. Even other remaining Latin American dictatorships in Mexico, Chile, Brazil, and Paraguay, which were traditionally paternalistic in their conservativism and staunchly anti-communism, wouldn't go that far and ultimately shunned the similar economic policies. The moves did curb inflation, but Colombia's unemployment rate spiked.

Najera's popularity was then briefly saved by two events: his resounding landslide reelection victory in the 1986 Presidential election and the controversial Operation Liberation, which ultimately resulted in the downfall of the Panamanian military government of the flamboyant Manuel Noriega. These events took pressure and attention and scrutiny from the Chicago Boys for long enough for strong economic growth starting in April 1986, right after Operation Liberation had ended, all the way through 1988. What nobody noticed, however, was that it was fueled by high levels of debt and selling copper for slightly below world market prices; as the global commodities market shifted back to normalization into the late 1980s, Colombia was forced to sell more copper even more competitiveness and their foreign currency reserves dwindled massively via capital flight as inflation started to creeping upwards along with high unemployment, and finally in May 1989, Jose Delgado bit the bullet and devalued the Colombian Peso, just in time for the explosive and deadly Tiananmen Square Crisis breaking out, briefly spiking inflation again, and seeking global concerns about Latin American finances ballooning over the Summer of 1989 due to escalating inflation in Mexico, Brazil and the Argentine Republic all three with bigger economies with stronger reserves.

The devaluation in May 1989 began a currency crisis that would conclude in September 1989 with Colombia's growing default on its debt as government austerity had so deeply exhausted the Treasury that even nothing was left to pay America's and other foreign debt; banks in the United States were reluctant to refinance Colombia's debt "fine in line" either, as their exports and imports were low and getting lower, and because if they refinanced Colombia; then they would also have to refinance larger debtors like Mexico and Brazil, both of whom continued making good on their payments. The Colombian default of September 1989 was like taking irons to the Colombian economy; and thousands protested throughout 1989 with many of the protesters arrested and imprisoned for decades; three years after the triumph of Operation Liberation, the Najera government was becoming more oppressive, and until its end in the late 1990s, would be increasingly regarded as South America's most grimmest totalitarian police state.
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Chapter 19: Henry Marion Jackson (16th United States Secretary of Defense) New
Henry Marion "Scoop" Jackson (31 May 1912-1 September 1983), was an American lawyer and politician who served as a US Representative for Washington's 2nd Congressional District for six two-year terms (1941-1953) and United States Senator for five terms (1953-1981) from the State of Washington and served as the 16th United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan (1981-1983). A Cold War liberal and staunch anti-communist member of the Democratic Party, Jackson supported higher military spending and a hardcore staunch hard-line against the Soviet Union and China including other communist nations, while also supporting social welfare programs, civil rights, and labor unions.

Born to Norwegian parents in Everett, Washington, Jackson practiced law in Everett; after graduating from the University of Washington Law School. He won election to Congress in 1940 representing Washington's 2nd Congressional District and was reelected in 1942, 1944, 1946, 1948 and again in 1950, and won statewide office beginning in 1952 when he was elected to the United States Senate with 56 percent of the statewide vote, defeating Republican incumbent United States Senator Harry P. Cain, joining the United States Senate beginning in 1953. Jackson went on to win reelection in 1958 with 67 percent of the statewide vote; 1964 with 72 percent of the statewide vote; 1970 with 82 percent of the statewide vote and again in 1976 with 71 percent of the statewide vote, all of which he swept all 39 counties in his four reelection victories. During his 28 years in the United States Senate, Jackson supported the civil rights movement of the 1960s, and authored the National Environmental Policy Act, which helped establishing the principle of publicly analyzing environmental impacts. He also co-sponsored the Jackson/Vanik Amendment, which denied normal trade relations to countries with restrictive emigration policies. Jackson served as Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources from 1963 to 1981, a total of 18 years. He also ran twice unsuccessfully for the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1972 and again in 1976.

Known as the "Senator from Boeing", Jackson's staunch hardcore hawkish views on national defense, national security and foreign policy led to his shocking appointment by President Reagan to serve as Secretary of Defense, which resulted in an overwhelming confirmation vote of 101-0 for his confirmation as the 16th United States Secretary of Defense, being sworn in afterwards on 21 January 1981 by then-Vice President George HW Bush at the Executive Office Building. Nonetheless during his two years of running the Pentagon, Jackson's experience was very invaluable for a new administration, and his careful guidance during crises in Sweden in late 1981; the explosive Falkland War of 1982 between the United Kingdom and the Argentine Republic; Taiwan's successful and controversial military invasion of the Mainland in 1982; among other hot-spots in Africa and the Middle East in 1982 and 1983, helped prevent them from ballooning into broader wars that could've threatened regional stability, global oil prices or the American economic recovery.

Among the proteges who followed Jackson to the Pentagon included Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle, known as the "Baby Scoops" by some national security analysts, both of whom were regarded as Jackson's chief proteges and both of whom would become critical cogs in the DC scene over the next several years and decades. During Jackson's tenure as Secretary of Defense, the 1982 Strategic Posture Review was undergoing operation within a coalition which Jackson and his acolytes were part of. While Wolfowitz was a staunch opponent of arms control and reduction agreements, Jackson was open-minded and presented the continued purchase of the Ohio-class submarines as a way to reducing the cost of the marine component of the nuclear triad while also complying with the contours of the SALT III agreement, which had gone into effect on 1 January 1982 after being ratified by both parties the previous year. This led to Jackson approving the cancellation of the controversial MX missile, which besides the considerable backlash engendered to its basing plans by both NATO allies and Congress had the issue of totally locking up the nation's rail system were it to be deployed en masse.

Jackson's powers as a cost cutter earned him the sobriquet "Scoop The Carving Knife". He also shared President Reagan's vision and convictions that the Soviet Union posed a serious threat to the United States, and that the defense establishment needed to be strengthened and modernized. Jackson became aggressively vigorous and staunch advocate of President Reagan's plan of aggressively increasing the budget of the Department of Defense, which originally began under the administrations of then-Presidents Nelson Rockefeller (1975-1979) and Linwood Holton (1979-1981) including during the respective tenures of Defense Secretaries William P. Clements, Jr., (1975-1977) and John G. Tower (1977-1981).
By the time of his sudden death from an aneurysm on 1 September 1983, Jackson's process of implementing his reorientation of the Pentagon towards hard power continued under his successor Caspar Weinberger, who continued Jackson's policies at the Pentagon. Following funeral services in Washington, DC and Everett, Washington, Jackson was laid to rest at the Evergreen Cemetery in Everett, Washington with full military honors.

Henry M. Jackson

16th United States Secretary of Defense
In office

21 January 1981-1 September 1983
President Ronald Reagan
Deputy Caspar Weinberger
Preceded by John Tower
Succeeded by Caspar Weinberger

United States Senator from Washington
In office

3 January 1953-21 January 1981
Preceded by Harry P. Cain
Succeeded by Daniel J. Evans

28th Chairman of the Democratic National Committee
In office

17 July 1960-21 January 1961
Preceded by Paul Butler
Succeeded by John Moran Butler

Member of the United States House of Representatives from
Washington's 2nd Congressional District
In office

3 January 1941-3 January 1953
Preceded by Monrad Wallgren
Succeeded by Jack Westland

******Personal details******
Henry Marion Jackson
31 May 1912
Everett, Washington, United States
Died 1 September 1983 (aged 71)
Everett, Washington, United States
Resting Place Evergreen Cemetery
Everett, Washington
Political party Democratic
Spouse Helen Hardin (m. 1961)
Children 2
Education Stanford University (BA)
University of Washington (JD)
******Military Service******
Allegiance United States
Branch/Service United States Army
Battles/Wars World War II

Chapter 19: Personal PoV's (Fall 1984: Gradually moving to Democracy) New
......"Montes led Uruguay during some chaotic times following the violent death of Gregorio Conrado Alvarez in the Fall of 1983, he quickly announced that Uruguay will be holding presidential and legislative elections in 1984. Nobody knew that someone low profile inside the Uruguayan Armed Forces, would catapult to the Presidency and surprisingly move the South American country towards full democracy......"
-Excerpt from "Montes: The Man and His Times: Leading Uruguay to Democracy"

......"While some of the military dictatorships still remained such as in Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay; others such as Uruguay and Brazil were gradually moving to democracy, although a little bit slower than what the Argentine Republic did in the aftermath of their embarrassing defeat in the Falklands War of 1982. Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela were a little bit chaotic, Panama and Nicaragua were still under dictatorships by leaders, who many in the West preferred not to have around; Cuba was still going to Cuba and the Dominican Republic was still deep in the craziness of the Trujillo legacy, etc., Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Suriname, Guyana were undergoing some intriguing transitions. Nobody knew what to expect inside the Western Hemisphere. And what happens with the tail-end of 1984, nobody couldn't expect the unexpected going forward......"
-Excerpt from "The Americas: Era of Transition and Intrigue".

......"Bush's potential foreign policy test was going to give him a sucker-punch that he won't be able to see coming. Despite his landslide victory in 1984 over Babbitt, he was going to be consumed with foreign policy and international affairs, there was a potential possibility of some explosive crisis anywhere in the world: Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asian Pacific......"
-"Leadership: Presidents and Foreign Policy"
Chapter 19: National and International Headlines (Fall 1984: XX) New

*Friday, 27 December 1984: It was a closely-watched race for who was going to succeed outgoing Senate Majority Leader Ted Stevens (R-AK), who was recently reelected to his Senate seat. The two contenders were Bob Dole (R-KS) and William Armstrong (R-CO). President George HW Bush and Vice President Howard Baker both remained neutral, especially Baker, who held the title of Senate Majority Leader until his ascension as Vice President in the Spring of 1984, but some of Baker's surrogates made no secret that Dole was their man. When the Republican Senate Caucus met for the vote on December 27th, Dole defeated Armstrong 40-15 to become Senate Majority Leader in the upcoming 99th Congress. Armstrong was gracious in defeat and pledged to supporting Dole as Senate Majority Leader. To appease conservatives, Armstrong proposed United States Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY) as Senate Majority Whip, who was elected with just three opposing votes.

On the Democratic side, there weren't any changes: Already before the Christmas holiday break,
Robert Byrd (D-WV) was again elected Senate Minority Leader. Alan Cranston (D-CA) won election again as Senate Minority Leader.
Chapter 19: National and International Headlines (Spring 1985: I) New
99th United States Congress
Thursday, 3 January 1985

United States House of Representatives

255 Democrats
181 Republicans

Speaker of the House of Representatives:
Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill (D-MA 08th)
since 4 January 1977

House Majority Leadership (Democratic):
Majority Leader:
Jim Wright (D-TX 12th)
Majority Whip: Tom Foley (D-WA 05th)
Chief Deputy Majority Whip: William Vollie Alexander, Jr., (D-AR 01st)
Democratic Caucus Chairman: Dick Gephardt (D-MO 03rd)
Democratic Caucus Secretary: Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH 20th)
Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Tony Coelho (D-CA 15th)

House Minority Leadership (Republican):
Minority Leader:
Robert H. Michel (R-IL 18th)
Minority Whip:
Trent Lott (R-MS 05th)
Chief Deputy Whip:
Tom Loeffler (R-TX 21st)
Republican Conference Chairman:
Jack Kemp (R-NY 31st)
Republican Conference Vice Chairman:
Lynn M. Martin (R-IL 16th)
Republican Conference Secretary:
Robert Lagomarsino (R-CA 19th)
Policy Committee Chairman:
Dick Cheney (R-WY At-Large)
Republican Campaign Committee Chairman:
Guy Vander Jagt (R-MI 09th)

COMING UP IN CHAPTER 19 OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC: Composition of the United States Senate (Spring 1985)
Chapter 19: National and International Headlines (Spring 1985: II) New
99th United States Congress (Part II)
Thursday, 3 January 1985

United States Senate

53 Republicans
49 Democrats

Senate President: Howard Baker (R-TN)
Senate President Pro Tempore:
Strom Thurmond (R-SC)

Senate Majority Leadership (Republican):
Majority Leader:
Robert J. "Bob" Dole (R-KS)
Majority Whip:
Alan Simpson (R-WY)
Republican Conference Chairman:
John Chafee (R-RI)
Republican Conference Secretary:
Thad Cochran (R-MS)
National Senatorial Committee Chairman:
John Heinz, III (R-PA)
Policy Committee Chairman:
William L. Armstrong (R-CO)

Senate Minority Leadership (Democratic):
Minority Leader:
Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Minority Whip:
Alan Cranston (D-CA)
Democratic Caucus Secretary:
Daniel Inouye (D-HI)
Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman:
George J. Mitchell (D-ME)

Chapter 19: National and International Headlines (Spring 1985: III) New
*Saturday, 12 January 1985: Because of the severe blizzard weather, the second Inauguration of President George HW Bush will be held indoors inside the Capitol Rotunda on Monday, 21 January 1985. Originally scheduled to be held outdoors at the West Front Grounds of the US Capitol, the horrific blizzards have caused the inauguration festivities to be moved to the Capitol Rotunda instead, which will be the second time this has happened, dating back to the 1977 inauguration of then-President Nelson Rockefeller, whose second inauguration was held indoors because of a devastating blizzard.

*Thursday, 17 January 1985: The official programme announcement on the 1985 Presidential Inauguration Festivities:

The Inaugural Committee
requests the honor of your presence
to attend the Inaugruation of
George Herbert Walker Bush
as President of the United States


Howard Henry Baker, Jr.,
as Vice President of the United States

on Monday, the twenty-first of January
one thousand nine hundred and eighty-five
in the City of Washington, District of Columbia

Charles Mathias
Chairman of the United States Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies

Chapter 19: United States Senate in the 99th US Congress (Spring 1985: IV) New
United States Senate Composition
Thursday, 17 January 1985

Class 2: Howell Heflin (D-AL)
Class 3: Jeremiah Denton (R-AL)

Class 2: Ted Stevens (R-AK)
Class 3: Frank Murkowski (R-AK)

Class 1: Dennis DeConcini (D-AZ)
Class 3: Barry Goldwater (R-AZ)

Class 2: David Pryor (D-AR)
Class 3: Dale Bumpers (D-AR)

Class 1: Pete Wilson (R-CA)
Class 3: Alan Cranston (D-CA)

Class 2: William L. Armstrong (R-CO)
Class 3: Gary Hart (D-CO)

Class 1: Lowell Weicker (R-CT)
Class 3: Christopher J. Dodd (D-CT)

Class 1: William Roth (R-DE)
Class 2: Joseph R. Biden, Jr., (D-DE)

Class 1: Lawton M. Chiles (D-FL)
Class 3: Paula Hawkins (R-FL)

Class 2: Rosalynn Carter (D-GA)
Class 3: Mack Mattingly (R-GA)

Class 1: Spark Matsunaga (D-HI)
Class 3: Daniel Inouye (D-HI)

Class 2: James A. McClure (R-ID)
Class 3: Steve Symms (R-ID)

Class 2: Paul Simon (D-IL)
Class 3: Alan J. Dixon (D-IL)

Class 1: Richard G. Lugar (R-IN)
Class 3: Daniel J. Quayle (R-IN)

Class 2: Tom Harkin (D-IA)
Class 3: Chuck Grassley (R-IA)

Class 2: Nancy Kassebaum (R-KS)
Class 3: Robert J. "Bob" Dole (R-KS)

Class 2: Mitch McConnell (R-KY)
Class 3: Wendell Ford (D-KY)

Class 2: J. Bennett Johnston (D-LA)
Class 3: Russell B. Long (D-LA)

Class 1: George J. Mitchell (D-ME)
Class 2: William Cohen (R-ME)

Class 1: Paul Sarbanes (D-MD)
Class 3: Charles Mathias (R-MD)

Class 1: Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA)
Class 2: John F. Kerry (D-MA)

Class 1: Donald Riegle (D-MI)
Class 2: Carl Levin (D-MI)

Class 1: David Durenberger (R-MN)
Class 2: Rudy Boschwitz (R-MN)

Class 1: Ray Mabus (D-MS)
Class 2: Thad Cochran (R-MS)

Class 1: John Danforth (R-MO)
Class 3: Thomas Eagleton (D-MO)

Class 1: John Mechler (D-MT)
Class 2: Max Baucus (D-MT)

Class 1: Edward Zorinsky (D-NE)
Class 2: J. James Exon (D-NE)

Class 1: Chic Hecht (R-NV)
Class 3: Paul Laxalt (R-NV)

*(New Hampshire)
Class 2: Gordon J. Humphrey (R-NH)
Class 3: Warren Rudman (R-NH)

*(New Jersey)
Class 1: Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ)
Class 2: Bill Bradley (D-NJ)

*(New Mexico)
Class 1: Jeff Bingaman (D-NM)
Class 2: Pete Domenici (R-NM)

*(New York State)
Class 1: Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY St)
Class 3: Alphonse D'Amato (R-NY St)

*(North Carolina)
Class 2: Jesse Helms (R-NC)
Class 3: John Porter East (R-NC)

*(North Dakota)
Class 1: Quentin Burdick (D/NPL-ND)
Class 3: Mark Andrews (R-ND)

Class 1: Howard Metzenbaum (D-OH)
Class 3: John Glenn (D-OH)

Class 2: David Boren (D-OK)
Class 3: Don Nickles (R-OK)

Class 2: Mark Hatfield (R-OR)
Class 3: Bob Packwood (R-OR)

Class 1: John Heinz, III (R-PA)
Class 3: Arlen Specter (R-PA)

*(Puerto Rico)
Class 1: Juan H. Cintron Garcia (D-PR)
Class 2: Jefferson Gillespie (D/PNP-PR)

*(Rhode Island)
Class 1: John Chafee (R-RI)
Class 2: Claiborne Pell (D-RI)

*(South Carolina)
Class 2: Strom Thurmond (R-SC)
Class 3: Ernest "Fritz" Hollings (D-SC)

*(South Dakota)
Class 2: Larry Pressler (R-SD)
Class 3: James Abdnor (R-SD)

Class 1: Jim Sasser (D-TN)
Class 2: Albert Arnold Gore, Jr., (D-TN)

Class 1: Lloyd Bentsen (D-TX)
Class 2: Phil Gramm (R-TX)

Class 1: Orrin Hatch (R-UT)
Class 3: Jake Garn (R-UT)

Class 1: Robert Stafford (R-VT)
Class 3: Patrick Leahy (D-VT)

Class 1: Paul Trible (R-VA)
Class 2: John Warner (R-VA)

Class 1: Daniel Jackson Evans (R-WA)
Class 3: Slade Gorton (R-WA)

*(West Virginia)
Class 1: Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)
Class 2: Jay Rockefeller (D-WV)

Class 1: William Proxmire (D-WI)
Class 3: Bob Kasten (R-WI)

Class 1: Malcolm Wallop (R-WY)
Class 2: Alan Simpson (R-WY)

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